• Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of Vision

    Influences of Prior Experience on Current-trial Ensemble Perception

    Abstract
    Introduction: Object ensembles are summarized quickly and efficiently by their summary statistics. While studies focused on extraction of current-view and current-trial statistics (i.e., short glimpses), little attention was paid to how ensemble perception is affected by prior experience (Crawford et al., 2018) and some studies were designed to avoid or eliminate show more
  • Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of Vision

    Visual and non-visual skill acquisition–success and failure

    Abstract
    Acquiring expert skills requires years of experience – whether these skills are visual (e.g. face identification), motor (playing tennis) or cognitive (mastering chess). In 1977, Shiffrin & Schneider proposed an influential stimulus-driven, bottom-up theory of expertise automaticity, involving mapping stimuli to their consistent response. Integrating many studies since show more
  • 30 Aug 2021 Preprint PsyArXiv

    Disengaging punishment avoidance is difficult for humans

    Paul B Sharp, Evan Russek, Quentin Huys, Raymond J Dolan, Eran Eldar
    Abstract
    Managing multiple goals is essential to wellbeing, yet we are only beginning to understand the computations by which we navigate this resource-demanding balancing act. Here, we sought to elucidate algorithms humans use to balance reward seeking and punishment avoidance goals, and to examine how these algorithms are affected in anxious individuals. To do so, we developed show more
  • 21 Aug 2021 Journal Article Journal of Psychiatric Research

    Waxing and waning: The roles of chronotype and time of day in predicting symptom fluctuations in obsessive-compulsive disorder using a daily-monitoring design

    Hadar Naftalovich, Gideon E Anholt, Rotem Keren, Oded Ben Arush, Eyal Kalanthroff
    Abstract
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms fluctuate throughout the day, but scientists are not sure what underlies these fluctuations. One factor which may explain how OCD symptoms wax and wane throughout the day is alertness. Increased alertness is associated with greater inhibitory control, a factor which plays a significant role in patients’ ability to overcome show more
  • 21 Aug 2021 Journal Article European Journal of Personality

    Longitudinal Links Between Self-Esteem and the Importance of Self-Direction Values During Adolescence

    Ella Daniel, Maya Benish-Weisman, Ariel Knafo-Noam, Anat Bardi
    Abstract
    Self-direction values (e.g., independence, curiosity) are among the most important values to people worldwide. However, it is not clear what encourages their development. We propose that self-esteem may be associated with the development of self-direction values because feelings of self-worth provide the confidence needed for independent pursuit. As both independence show more
  • 17 Aug 2021 Journal Article Neuropsychologia

    Examining the transition of novel information toward familiarity

    Amnon Yacoby, Niv Reggev, Anat Maril
    Abstract
    Throughout their lives, humans encounter multiple instances of new information that can be inconsistent with prior knowledge (novel). Over time, the once-novel information becomes integrated into their established knowledge base, shifting from novelty to familiarity. In this study, we investigated the processes by which the first steps of this transition take place. We show more
  • 11 Aug 2021 Journal Article Social Psychology

    Nuancing Perspective

    Abstract
    Two experiments manipulated participants’ familiarity with another person and examined their performance in future understanding of that person’s emotions. To gain familiarity, participants watched several videos of the target sharing experiences and rated her emotions. In the Feedback condition, perceivers learned about the actual emotions the target felt. In the show more
  • 6 Aug 2021 Journal Article Journal of Personality Assessment

    Increasing the Flexibility of Implicit Personality Assessment: An Examination of a Universal Assessment Procedure of the Self

    Abstract
    The current studies systematically examined a new version of the Questionnaire-Based Implicit Association Test (qIAT), which minimizes the differences between direct and indirect modes of assessment. Studies 1a (N = 276) and 1 b (N = 238) tested a method that enables an indirect assessment of questionnaires that include only non-reversed items. Studies 2a (N = 255) and show more
  • 3 Aug 2021 Journal Article Scientific Reports

    Imputation of the continuous arterial line blood pressure waveform from non-invasive measurements using deep learning

    Brian L Hill, Nadav Rakocz, Akos Rudas, Jeffrey N Chiang, Sidong Wang, Ira S Hofer, Maxime Cannesson, Eran Halperin
    Abstract
    In two-thirds of intensive care unit (ICU) patients and 90% of surgical patients, arterial blood pressure (ABP) is monitored non-invasively but intermittently using a blood pressure cuff. Since even a few minutes of hypotension increases the risk of mortality and morbidity, for the remaining (high-risk) patients ABP is measured continuously using invasive devices, and show more
  • 3 Aug 2021 Journal Article Psychological Science

    Search for the Unknown: Guidance of Visual Search in the Absence of an Active Template

    Abstract
    Can you efficiently look for something even without knowing what it looks like? According to theories of visual search, the answer is no: A template of the search target must be maintained in an active state to guide search for potential locations of the target. Here, we tested the need for an active template by assessing a case in which this template is improbable: show more
  • 30 Jul 2021 Journal Article Social Science & Medicine

    Vital personality scores and healthy aging: Life-course associations and familial transmission

    Jasmin Wertz, Salomon Israel, Louise Arseneault, Daniel W Belsky, Kyle J Bourassa, HonaLee Harrington, Renate Houts, Richie Poulton, Leah S Richmond-Rakerd, Espen Røysamb, Terrie E Moffitt, Avshalom Caspi
    Abstract
    Objectives Personality traits are linked with healthy aging, but it is not clear how these associations come to manifest across the life-course and across generations. To study this question, we tested a series of hypotheses about (a) personality-trait prediction of markers of healthy aging across the life-course, (b) developmental origins, stability and change of links show more
  • 29 Jul 2021 Journal Article Plos One

    The influence of anger on empathy and theory of mind

    Ronja Weiblen, Noam Mairon, Sören Krach, Macià Buades-Rotger, Mor Nahum, Philipp Kanske, Anat Perry, Ulrike M Krämer
    Abstract
    Social cognition allows humans to understand and predict other people's behavior by inferring or sharing their emotions, intentions and beliefs. Few studies have investigated the impact of one's own emotional state on understanding others. Here, we tested the effect of being in an angry state on empathy and theory of mind (ToM). In a between-groups design we manipulated show more
  • 29 Jul 2021 Conference Paper Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society

    A cognitive bias for Zipfian distributions? Uniform distributions become more skewed via cultural transmission

    Abstract
    There is growing evidence that cognitive biases play a role in shaping language structure. We ask whether such biases contribute to the propensity of Zipfian word-frequency distributions, one of the striking commonalities between languages. Recent work suggests Zipfian distributions confer a learnability advantage, facilitating word learning and segmentation (e.g show more
  • 29 Jul 2021 Conference Paper Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society

    Efficient adaptation to listener proficiency: The case of referring expressions

    Abstract
    If speakers communicate efficiently, they should produce more linguistic material when comprehension difficulty increases. Comprehension difficulty can be impacted by the message itself (studied extensively) or by properties of the listener (studied less). Here we investigate the impact of listeners’ estimated proficiency on speakers’ productions, using referential show more
  • 29 Jul 2021 Conference Paper Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society

    Creative Foraging: Examining Relations Between Foraging Styles, Semantic Memory Structure, and Creative Thinking

    Yoed N Kenett, Brendan S Baker, Thomas T Hills, Yuval Hart, Roger E Beaty
    Abstract
    Creativity has been separately related to differences in foraging search styles and semantic memory structure. Here, we converge computational methods to examine the relation of creative foraging styles, semantic memory structure, and creative thinking. A large sample of participants was divided into groups based on their exploration and exploitation strategies in a show more
  • 29 Jul 2021 Conference Paper Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society

    Unfolding Conscious Awareness from Non-Conscious Perception in Non-Human Animals

    Moshe Shay Ben-Haim, Olga Dal Monte, Nicholas A Fagan, Yarrow Dunham, Ran R Hassin, Steve W C Chang, Laurie R Santos
    Abstract
    Conscious awareness to the events and stimuli around us is a central part of our everyday experience. Yet, are humans the only species that experiences conscious awareness? Since non-verbal species cannot report their internal states, philosophers and scientists have long debated whether the question of animal consciousness is empirically testable, and it still remains show more
  • 28 Jul 2021 Journal Article Cognitive Therapy and Research

    Rumination and Emotional Modulation of the Attentional Blink

    Abstract
    Rumination about negative experiences is widely viewed as a transdiagnostic process underlying various forms of psychopathology that involve emotion dysregulation. Cognitive models highlight the role of attentional control and emotional biases in the development and maintenance of rumination. We suggest that the temporality of the attentional blink paradigm may make it show more
  • 28 Jul 2021 Preprint PsyArXiv

    Infant-directed speech becomes less redundant as infants grow: implications for language learning

    Abstract
    According to the communicative efficiency hypothesis, speakers should increase redundancy (effort) when they perceive difficulties in comprehension. This effect was mostly studied at the message level, with less work looking at the impact of interlocutors' perceived difficulty. Here, we ask whether conversing with language learners results in more redundant language show more
  • 27 Jul 2021 Book Chapter Wright's Behavior Management in Dentistry for Children

    Child Development: Basic Concepts and Clinical Considerations

    Abstract
    This chapter presents basic aspects of child development, focusing on typical development and addressing cognitive, social, and emotional development as manifested in the areas of intelligence, social communication, and emotion regulation. Pediatric patients encompass a wide range of ages and development stages from infants, toddlers, and children to pre-adolescents show more
  • 26 Jul 2021 Preprint Research Square

    Emotional Dysregulation And Quality of Life In Young Adults With ADHD- A Cross Sectional Study

    Abstract
    Objective: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with emotional dysregulation (ED) and impaired quality of life (QoL). However, the role of ED in explaining the relationship between ADHD and QoL is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to do so in a sample of non-referred young adults with and without ADHD. Method: The study design was show more
  • 26 Jul 2021 Journal Article Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings

    If It’s Broken, Fix It: The Effectiveness of Moral Reminders Depends on Prior Behavior

    Andrea Pittarello, Thekla Schmidt, Assaf Segel, Ruth Mayo
    Abstract
    It is still unclear whether moral reminders promote, hinder, or have no effect on behavior. In a field study measuring dishonesty and three experiments on reciprocity, we varied whether the reminder was phrased with an affirmation or a negation and whether it depicted people hurt by dishonesty. We also tested the type of behavior targeted by the reminder being first show more
  • 23 Jul 2021 Journal Article Journal of Clinical Psychology

    Patterns of alliance development in cognitive behavioral therapy versus attention bias modification for social anxiety disorder: Sawtooth patterns and sudden gains

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES We examined patterns in alliance development in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) compared to attention bias modification (ABM). We focused on the occurrence of sawtooth patterns (increases within- and decreases between-sessions) and sudden gains and their association with outcome. METHODS Clients received CBT (n = 33) or show more
  • 21 Jul 2021 Journal Article Cerebral Cortex

    Context Sensitivity across Multiple Time scales with a Flexible Frequency Bandwidth

    Abstract
    Everyday auditory streams are complex, including spectro-temporal content that varies at multiple timescales. Using EEG, we investigated the sensitivity of human auditory cortex to the content of past stimulation in unattended sequences of equiprobable tones. In 3 experiments including 82 participants overall, we found that neural responses measured at different latencies show more
  • 13 Jul 2021 Journal Article Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

    Insight in nonpsychotic disorders: A new model of insight and a systematic review of measures

    Abstract
    Objective: There is substantial research examining insight in psychotic disorders and in some nonpsychotic disorders. However, there has been little attention given to many nonpsychotic disorders. Research on insight in psychosis distinguishes between cognitive and clinical insight. In most studies examining insight in nonpsychotic disorders, definitions and show more
  • 9 Jul 2021 Journal Article Psychoneuroendocrinology

    Intranasal oxytocin, testosterone reactivity, and human competitiveness

    Abstract
    Competitiveness is an essential feature of human social interactions. Despite an extensive body of research on the underlying psychological and cultural factors regulating competitive behavior, the role of biological factors remains poorly understood. Extant research has focused primarily on sex hormones, with equivocal findings. Here, we examined if intranasal show more
  • 7 Jul 2021 Journal Article Neuron

    Gender bias in academia: A lifetime problem that needs solutions

    Anaïs Llorens, Athina Tzovara, Ludovic Bellier, Ilina Bhaya-Grossman, Aurélie Bidet-Caulet, William K Chang, Zachariah R Cross, Rosa Dominguez-Faus, Adeen Flinker, Yvonne Fonken, Mark A Gorenstein, Chris Holdgraf, Colin W Hoy, Maria V Ivanova, Richard T Jimenez, Soyeon Jun, Julia W Y Kam, Celeste Kidd, Enitan Marcelle, Deborah Marciano, Stephanie Martin, Nicholas E Myers, Karita Ojala, Anat Perry, Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Stephanie K Riès, Ignacio Saez, Ivan Skelin, Katarina Slama, Brooke Staveland, Danielle S Bassett, Elizabeth A Buffalo, Adrienne L Fairhall, Nancy J Kopell, Laura J Kray, Jack J Lin, Anna C Nobre, Dylan Riley, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Joni D Wallis, Xiao-Jing Wang, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg, Sabine Kastner, Robert T Knight, Nina F Dronkers
    Abstract
    Despite increased awareness of the lack of gender equity in academia and a growing number of initiatives to address issues of diversity, change is slow, and inequalities remain. A major source of inequity is gender bias, which has a substantial negative impact on the careers, work-life balance, and mental health of underrepresented groups in science. Here, we argue that show more
  • 6 Jul 2021 Journal Article Journal of Child Language

    The Starting Big approach to language learning

    Abstract
    The study of language acquisition has a long and contentious history: researchers disagree on what drives this process, the relevant data, and the interesting questions. Here, I outline the Starting Big approach to language learning, which emphasizes the role of multiword units in language, and of coarse-to-fine processes in learning. I outline core predictions and show more
  • 1 Jul 2021 Journal Article Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

    Awareness of the Psychological Bias of Naïve Realism Can Increase Acceptance of Cultural Differences

    Lucía López-Rodríguez, Eran Halperin, Alexandra Vázquez, Isabel Cuadrado, Marisol Navas, Ángel Gómez
    Abstract
    Acceptance of cultural differences can contribute to diversity. However, naïve realism—the conviction that one’s views are objective whereas others’ are biased—might hinder intercultural coexistence. We tested, in three experimental studies, whether a cognitive strategy based on raising awareness of the naïve realism, without any reference to culture and free of emotional show more
  • 30 Jun 2021 Journal Article Behavior Genetics

    Are Different Individuals Sensitive to Different Environments? Individual Differences in Sensitivity to the Effects of the Parent, Peer and School Environment on Externalizing Behavior and its Genetic and Environmental Etiology

    Noam Markovitch, Robert M Kirkpatrick, Ariel Knafo-Noam
    Abstract
    Externalizing behavior is substantially affected by genetic effects, which are moderated by environmental exposures. However, little is known about whether these moderation effects differ depending on individual characteristics, and whether moderation of environmental effects generalizes across different environmental domains. With a large sample (N = 1,441 individuals) show more
  • 29 Jun 2021 Journal Article International Journal of Psychology (IJP)

    Appraisal and coping predict health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: An international approach

    Leslie D Kirby, Weiqiang Qian, Zafer Adiguzel, Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi, Margarita Bakracheva, María C Orejarena Ballestas, José Fernando A Cruz, Arobindu Dash, Claudia Dias, Maria J Ferreira, Johanna G Goosen, Shanmukh V Kamble, Nikolay L Mihaylov, Fada Pan, Rui Sofia, Mirre Stallen, Maya Tamir, Wilco W van Dijk, Joar Vittersø, Craig A Smith
    Abstract
    COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on people worldwide. We conducted an international survey (n = 3646) examining the degree to which people's appraisals and coping activities around the pandemic predicted their health and well-being. We obtained subsamples from 12 countries—Bangladesh, Bulgaria, China, Colombia, India, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Portugal show more
  • 26 Jun 2021 Journal Article Political Behavior

    Threatened by the Worst but Hoping for the Best: Unraveling the Relationship Between Threat, Hope, and Public Opinion During Conflict

    Abstract
    How does the threat from future violence shape the opinions of those mired in violent intergroup disputes? Two competing rationales seem plausible. During conflict, threat from future violence increases support for dovish policies because the destruction and suffering associated with violence make peace seem more desirable and urgent. At the same time, threat from show more
  • 26 Jun 2021 Journal Article Cognitive Therapy and Research

    Narcissistic Reflections After Social Rejection: Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism in Terms of Explicit and Implicit Interpretation Bias

    Abstract
    Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism (GN/VN) are theorized to form two opposite coping strategies aimed at regulating self-esteem in face of a threat, especially negative feedback in social context. To test this, we examined the relationships of GN and VN with self-appraisals in social context, and hypothesized that GN would predict positive explicit self-appraisals, and show more
  • 22 Jun 2021 Journal Article Developmental Science

    Sensitivity, but to which environment? Individual differences in sensitivity to parents and peers show domain-specific patterns and a negative genetic correlation

    Abstract
    The idea that individuals differ in their sensitivity to the environment's effects is a cornerstone of developmental science. It has been demonstrated repeatedly, for different kinds of stressors, outcomes, and sensitivity markers. However, almost no empirical work was done to examine whether environmental sensitivity is domain-general (i.e., the same individuals are show more
  • 12 Jun 2021 Journal Article Motivation and Emotion

    Expressive suppression as an obstacle to social change: Linking system justification, emotion regulation, and collective action

    Nevin Solak, Maya Tamir, Nebi Sümer, John T Jost, Eran Halperin
    Abstract
    Research on system justification theory suggests that justifying the societal status quo decreases negative emotions, leading to less collective action. In this investigation, we propose that the degree to which negative emotions mediate the link between system justification and collective action may depend upon whether individuals tend to suppress the expression of show more
  • 10 Jun 2021 Journal Article Nature Human Behaviour

    The rise of affectivism

    Daniel Dukes, Kathryn Abrams, Ralph Adolphs, Mohammed Emtiaz Ahmed, Andrew Beatty, Kent C Berridge, Susan Broomhall, Tobias Brosch, Joseph J Campos, Zanna Clay, Fabrice Clément, William A Cunningham, Antonio R Damasio, Hanna Damasio, Justin D'Arms, Jane W Davidson, Beatrice de Gelder, Julien A Deonna, Ronnie de Sousa, Paul Ekman, Phoebe C Ellsworth, Ernst Fehr, Agneta H Fischer, Ad Foolen, Ute Frevert, Didier Maurice Grandjean, Jonathan Gratch, Leslie S Greenberg, Patricia Greenspan, James J Gross, Eran Halperin, Arvid Kappas, Dacher Keltner, Brian Knutson, David Konstan, Mariska E Kret, Joseph E LeDoux, Jennifer S Lerner, Robert W Levenson, George Loewenstein, Antony Stephen Reid Manstead, Terry A Maroney, Agnes Moors, Paula M Niedenthal, Brian Parkinson, Ioannis Pavlidis, Catherine Pelachaud, Seth D Pollak, Gilles Pourtois, Birgitt Roettger-Roessler, James A Russell, Disa A Sauter, Andrea Scarantino, Klaus R Scherer, Peter N Stearns, Jan E Stets, Christine Tappolet, Fabrice Teroni, Jeanne L Tsai, Jonathan H Turner, Carien M van Reekum, Patrik Vuilleumier, Tim Wharton, David Sander
    Abstract
    Research over the past decades has demonstrated the explanatory power of emotions, feelings, motivations, moods, and other affective processes when trying to understand and predict how we think and behave. In this consensus article, we ask: has the increasingly recognized impact of affective phenomena ushered in a new era, the era of affectivism?
  • 9 Jun 2021 Journal Article Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition

    Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Congruency Between Encoding and Testing Improves Detection of Concealed Memories

    Ine Van der Cruyssen, Franziska Regnath, Gershon Ben-Shakhar, Yoni Pertzov, Bruno Verschuere
    Abstract
    The current study addressed modality effects in a web-based Concealed Information Test (CIT) by asking participants to encode, and later conceal, crime-related details. Items were encoded and tested verbally or pictorially. A pilot (N = 73) and a preregistered study (N = 158) showed a robust interaction between encoding and testing modality: Items that were encoded and show more
  • 8 Jun 2021 Journal Article The British Journal of Social Psychology

    Testing a new indirect measure of general self-worth: The Self-esteem Questionnaire-based Implicit Association Test

    Abstract
    The self-esteem Questionnaire-based Implicit Association Test (SE-qIAT) provides an indirect assessment of general self-worth that is based on the items of the well-validated Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the structure of this variant of the IAT enables a clearer interpretation, compared with the conventional self-esteem IAT. Study 1 (N = 224) provided support show more
  • 31 May 2021 Journal Article Social and Personality Psychology Compass,

    The elusive link between eye‐movement patterns and facial expression recognition

    Abstract
    Different stereotypical facial expressions convey unique signals of muscular activity in distinct face regions. For example, the recognition of anger relies on decoding the downward drawing of the brows, while disgust recognition relies on decoding nose wrinkling and upper lip raising. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that one’s ability to identify a facial expression show more
  • 29 May 2021 Journal Article Behaviour Research and Therapy

    Maximizing remission from cognitive-behavioral therapy in medicated adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Helen Blair Simpson, Edna B Foa, Michael G Wheaton, Thea Gallagher, Marina Gershkovich, Andrew B Schmidt, Jonathan D Huppert, Raphael Campeas, Patricia Imms, Shawn P Cahill, Christina DiChiara, Steven D Tsao, Anthony C Puliafico, Daniel Chazin, Anu Asnaani, Kelly Moore, Jeremy Tyler, Shari A Steinman, Arturo Sanchez-LaCay, Sandy Capaldi, Ivar Snorrason, Elizabeth Turk-Karan, Donna Vermes, Eyal Kalanthroff, Anthony Pinto, Chang-Gyu Hahn, Bin Xu, Page E Van Meter, Martha Katechis, Jennifer Scodes, Yuanjia Wang
    Abstract
    Practice guidelines for adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) recommend augmenting serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) with exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP). However, fewer than half of patients remit after a standard 17-session EX/RP course. We studied whether extending the course increased overall remission rates and which patient factors predicted show more
  • 16 May 2021 Journal Article International Journal of Law and Psychiatry

    Involvement in litigation in children with PTSD following motor vehicle accident: Associations with emotional distress and treatment outcomes

    Maayan Shorer, Silvana Fennig, Alan Apter, Tammy Pilowsky Peleg
    Abstract
    Objectives Litigation is common in the context of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), adding contradicting motivations to individuals' engagement in psychotherapeutic interventions. This study's main goal was to explore the relationship between litigation status and emotional distress among children with PTSD following show more
  • 13 May 2021 Journal Article Child Development

    Waste Aversion Reduces Inequity Aversion Among Chinese Children

    Zhen Zhang, Avi Benozio
    Abstract
    An underlying aspect of the development of fairness is the aversion to unequal treatment toward equally deserving parties. By middle childhood, children from Western cultures are even willing to discard resources to avoid inequity. Here, a series of four studies were conducted to assess the robustness of inequity aversion in a culture that emphasizes the value of "Thrift" show more
  • 12 May 2021 Book Chapter

    Empathic Accuracy: Lessons from the Perception of Contextualized Real-Life Emotional Expressions

    Abstract
    Accurate perception of emotional expressions plays a critical role in empathic accuracy, but are emotional expressions truly informative for affect? Classic theories of emotion assert a direct, causal link between the emotional experience and its consequent manifestation in the face and voice. Such theories predict that distinct emotional experiences would yield distinct show more
  • 12 May 2021 Journal Article Affective Science

    More than Words? Semantic Emotion Labels Boost Context Effects on Faces

    Abstract
    Semantic emotional labels can influence the recognition of isolated facial expressions. However, it is unknown if labels also influence the susceptibility of facial expressions to context. To examine this, participants categorized expressive faces presented with emotionally congruent or incongruent bodies, serving as context. Face-body composites were presented together show more
  • 12 May 2021 Journal Article Molecular Psychiatry

    Resting mononuclear cell NR3C1 and SKA2 expression levels predict blunted cortisol reactivity to combat training stress among elite army cadets exposed to childhood adversity

    Carmel Kalla, Tanya Goltser-Dubner, Dalya Pevzner, Laura Canetti, Aron Mirman, Ariel Ben Yehuda, Noa Itzhar, Fortu Benarroch, Amit Shalev, Ruth Giesser, Eyal Fruchter, Inon Vashdi, Osnat Oz, Roni Haber, Chen Saloner, Amit Lotan, Esti Galili-Weisstub, Omer Bonne, Ronen Segman
    Abstract
    Childhood adversity (CA) may alter reactivity to stress throughout life, increasing risk for psychiatric and medical morbidity, yet long-term correlates of milder CA levels among high functioning healthy adolescents are less studied. The current study examined the prevalence and impact of CA exposure among a cohort of healthy motivated elite parachute unit volunteers show more
  • 3 May 2021 Journal Article Journal of Social and Personal Relationships

    “Side by side”: Development of twin relationship dimensions from early to middle childhood and the role of zygosity and parenting:

    Abstract
    Twin relationships have a significant effect on the twins’ life and their families. In the first comprehensive study of this topic, our purpose was to examine the developmental courses of four dyadic dimensions of twins’ relationships: closeness, dependence, conflict and rivalry, and the impact of zygosity and parenting on their relationships. Parents reported on their show more
  • 1 May 2021 Journal Article Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

    Parents' Perceptions of Infants' Nighttime Sleep Patterns Predict Mothers' Negativity: A Longitudinal Study

    Abstract
    Objective Infants' sleeping patterns can influence parents' sleep and their well-being. Infants' sleeping problems can evoke negative emotions from their parents because of the influence the problems have on parents' lives. However, little is known regarding the associations between infants' night sleep patterns and parents' overall negativity toward their children show more
  • 28 Apr 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Optimism and Pessimism in Optimised Replay

    Georgy K Antonov, Christopher Gagne, Eran Eldar, Peter Dayan
    Abstract
    ABSTRACT The replay of task-relevant trajectories is known to contribute to memory consolidation and improved task performance. A wide variety of experimental data show that the content of replayed sequences is highly specific and can be modulated by reward as well as other prominent task variables. However, the rules governing the choice of sequences to be replayed show more
  • 22 Apr 2021 Journal Article Scientific Reports

    Eye-tracking indices of impaired encoding of visual short-term memory in familial Alzheimer’s disease

    Ivanna M Pavisic, Yoni Pertzov, Jennifer M Nicholas, Antoinette O'Connor, Kirsty Lu, Keir X X Yong, Masud Husain, Nick C Fox, Sebastian J Crutch
    Abstract
    The basis of visual short-term memory (VSTM) impairments in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains unclear. Research suggests that eye movements may serve as indirect surrogates to investigate VSTM. Yet, investigations in preclinical populations are lacking. Fifty-two individuals from a familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) cohort (9 symptomatic carriers, 17 show more
  • 18 Apr 2021 Journal Article International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

    Women's Depressive Symptoms during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Pregnancy

    Karen Yirmiya, Noa Yakirevich-Amir, Heidi Preis, Amit Lotan, Shir Atzil, Inbal Reuveni
    Abstract
    The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has multiple ramifications for pregnant women. Untreated depression during pregnancy may have long-term effects on the mother and offspring. Therefore, delineating the effects of pregnancy on the mental health of reproductive-age women is crucial. This study aims to determine the risk for depressive symptoms in pregnant show more
  • 16 Apr 2021 Journal Article Journal of Interpersonal Violence

    Moral Injury and Suicide Ideation Among Combat Veterans: The Role of Trauma-Related Shame and Collective Hatred

    Gal Schwartz, Eran Halperin, Yossi Levi-Belz
    Abstract
    Exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) among combat veterans has been acknowledged as a significant stressful combat event that may lead to mental health problems, including suicide ideation (SI). Several studies have examined the risk and protective factors that can explain the conditions in which PMIEs may contribute to the development and maintenance show more
  • 14 Apr 2021 Journal Article Frontiers in Psychology

    "Help! I Need Somebody": Music as a Global Resource for Obtaining Wellbeing Goals in Times of Crisis

    Roni Y Granot, Daniel H Spitz, Boaz R Cherki, Psyche Loui, Renee Timmers, Rebecca Schaefer, Jonna K Vuoskoski, Ruth-Nayibe Cárdenas-Soler, João F Soares-Quadros, Shen Li, Carlotta Lega, Stefania La Rocca, Isabel Cecilia Martínez, Matías Germán Tanco, María Marchiano, Pastora Martínez-Castilla, Gabriela Pérez-Acosta, José Darío Martínez-Ezquerro, Isabel M Gutiérrez-Blasco, Lily Jiménez-Dabdoub, Marijn Coers, John Melvin G Treider, David M Greenberg, Salomon Israel
    Abstract
    Music can reduce stress and anxiety, enhance positive mood, and facilitate social bonding. However, little is known about the role of music and related personal or cultural (individualistic vs. collectivistic) variables in maintaining wellbeing during times of stress and social isolation as imposed by the COVID-19 crisis. In an online questionnaire, administered in 11 show more
  • 14 Apr 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Maintenance of Bound or Independent Features in Visual Working Memory is Task-dependent

    Ruoyi Cao, Yoni Pertzov, Zaifeng Gao, Mowei Shen, Leon Y Deouell
    Abstract
    Over the last decade, seemingly conflicting results were obtained regarding the question of whether features of an object are stored separately, or bound together, in working memory (WM). Many of these studies are based on an implicit assumption about a default, or fixed, mode of working memory storage. However, according to recent findings about the functional property show more
  • 13 Apr 2021 Journal Article Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

    I Care About Your Plight, But Only If I Like Your Leader: The Effect of National Leaders' Perceived Personality on Empathy and Pro-Social Behavior Towards Their Citizenry

    Abstract
    People’s default levels of empathy toward members of a distant group tend to be low. The current research shows that favorable perceptions regarding the personality of a group’s leader can stimulate empathy and pro-social behavior toward his or her countrymen. In four experimental studies (N = 884), we found that exposure to a news article that positively (vs. negatively) show more
  • 13 Apr 2021 Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Disentangling perceptual awareness from nonconscious processing in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Moshe Shay Ben-Haim, Olga Dal Monte, Nicholas A Fagan, Yarrow Dunham, Ran R Hassin, Steve W C Chang, Laurie R Santos
    Abstract
    Scholars have long debated whether animals, which display impressive intelligent behaviors, are consciously aware or not. Yet, because many complex human behaviors and high-level functions can be performed without conscious awareness, it was long considered impossible to untangle whether animals are aware or just conditionally or nonconsciously behaving. Here, we show more
  • 12 Apr 2021 Journal Article The Journals of gerontology. Series B

    Perceiving dynamic emotions expressed simultaneously in the face and body minimizes perceptual differences between young and older adults

    Abstract
    Objectives It is commonly argued that older adults show difficulties in standardized tasks of emotional expression perception, yet most previous works relied on classic sets of static, decontextualized, and stereotypical facial expressions. In real-life, facial expressions are dynamic and embedded in a rich context, two key factors that may aid emotion perception show more
  • 12 Apr 2021 Journal Article Clinical Psychological Science

    Disentangling Doubt and Checking Behaviors and Examining Their Association With Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms

    Abstract
    Experiencing doubt in an uncertain situation has been theorized to be an antecedent of compulsive checking. However, whether and when obsessive compulsive (OC) symptoms are associated with experiencing doubt and increased checking is unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between OC symptoms, the experience of doubt, and checking in a tone-discrimination show more
  • 8 Apr 2021 Journal Article Scientific Reports

    Gaze-pattern similarity at encoding may interfere with future memory

    Abstract
    Human brains have a remarkable ability to separate streams of visual input into distinct memory-traces. It is unclear, however, how this ability relates to the way these inputs are explored via unique gaze-patterns. Moreover, it is yet unknown how motivation to forget or remember influences the link between gaze similarity and memory. In two experiments, we used a show more
  • 1 Apr 2021 Journal Article Journal of Clinical Psychology

    Changes in clients and therapists experiences of therapeutic distance during psychodynamic therapy

    Sharon Egozi, Orya Tishby, Hadas Wiseman
    Abstract
    Attachment theory provides a framework for examining closeness-distance experiences in the development of the therapeutic relationship. Objective To examine changes in clients' and therapists' experiences of therapeutic distance along with psychodynamic therapy. Hypotheses Clients' and therapists' comfort with closeness and distance will increase, and the client's show more
  • 1 Apr 2021 Journal Article Emotion

    Social interaction context shapes emotion recognition through body language, not facial expressions

    Abstract
    The social context-seeing people emotionally interacting-is one of the most common contexts in which emotion perception occurs. Despite its importance, emotion perception of social interactions from a 3rd-person perspective is poorly understood. Here we investigated whether emotion recognition of fear and anger is facilitated by mere congruency (the contextual figure show more
  • Apr 2021 Journal Article Group Processes & Intergroup Relations

    Everyone should get the same, but we should get more: Group entitlement and intergroup moral double standard:

    Kinneret Endevelt, Noa Schori-Eyal, Eran Halperin
    Abstract
    Double standard—that is, employing a separate set of norms according to the actor’s and observer’s identity—is common in various contexts, but has not been given much empirical attention in the context of violent conflicts. We introduce group entitlement as a predictor of moral double standard in intergroup conflict. Three studies were conducted to test our research show more
  • 29 Mar 2021 Journal Article Clinical Psychological Science

    Motivations for Emotions in Bipolar Disorder

    Yael Millgram, June Gruber, Cynthia M Villanueva, Anna Rapoport, Maya Tamir
    Abstract
    Recent work has begun to examine the link between motivation for specific emotions and psychopathology. Yet research on this topic to date has focused primarily on depression. To understand patterns of motivation for emotions within and across affective disorders, we assessed motivation for emotions in adults at increased risk for and diagnosed with bipolar disorder show more
  • 26 Mar 2021 Preprint medRxiv

    The General Psychopathology Factor from Early to Middle Childhood: Longitudinal Genetic and Risk Analyses

    Abstract
    Background Accumulating research suggests the structure of psychopathology is best represented by continuous higher-order dimensions, including a general dimension, p-factor, and more specific dimensions, such as externalizing and internalizing factors. Here, we aimed to 1) replicate the p-factor in early childhood; 2) externally validate the dimensions with show more
  • 16 Mar 2021 Journal Article Cognition

    Did you see it? Robust individual differences in the speed with which meaningful visual stimuli break suppression

    Abstract
    Perceptual conscious experiences result from non-conscious processes that precede them. We document a new characteristic of the cognitive system: the speed with which visual meaningful stimuli are prioritized to consciousness over competing noise in visual masking paradigms. In ten experiments (N = 399) we find that an individual's non-conscious visual prioritization show more
  • 11 Mar 2021 Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

    Reaping a benefit at the expense of multiple others: How are the losses of others counted?

    Abstract
    We investigate individual decisions that produce gains for oneself, while imposing losses on a group of others. We theorize, based on the notion of empathy, that decision-makers consider the magnitude of the pain or loss they inflict on an individual in the group, but are largely insensitive to the number of individuals in the group who suffer losses. Studies involving show more
  • 19 Feb 2021 Journal Article Neuropsychologia

    Tracking second language immersion across time: Evidence from a bi-directional longitudinal cross-linguistic fMRI study

    Henry Brice, Stephen J Frost, Atira S Bick, Peter J Molfese, Jay G Rueckl, Kenneth R Pugh, Ram Frost
    Abstract
    Parallel cohorts of Hebrew speakers learning English in the U.S., and American-English speakers learning Hebrew in Israel were tracked over the course of two years of immersion in their L2. We utilised a functional MRI semantic judgement task with print and speech tokens, as well as a battery of linguistic and cognitive behavioural measures prior to and after immersion show more
  • 1 Jan 2021 Book Chapter The responsive psychotherapist: Attuning to clients in the moment

    Responsiveness in psychodynamic relational psychotherapy

    Abstract
    This chapter begins with a presentation of basic concepts in the two-person paradigm, followed by a description of relational events that therapists should be attuned to, such as negotiating the alliance, resolving ruptures in the alliance, attuning to the transference–countertransference matrix, processing enactments, and attuning to dissociated self states. Research show more
  • 2021 Journal Article Journal of Counseling Psychology

    Anxious attachment improves and is predicted by anxiety sensitivity in internet-based, guided self-help cognitive behavioral treatment for panic disorder

    Dina Zalaznik, Asher Y Strauss, Asala Halaj, Isaac Fradkin, David Daniel Ebert, Gerhard Andersson, Jonathan D Huppert
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to examine whether anxious and avoidant attachment styles improve during guided internet-based cognitive behavioral treatment (ICBT) for panic disorder, and if so, to identify potential theoretically driven mechanisms related to the change. We examined changes in anxious and avoidant attachment and their time-lagged (1 week), longitudinal show more
  • 15 Oct 2020 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

    Training-induced improvement in working memory tasks results from switching to efficient strategies

    Tamar Malinovitch, Hilla Jakoby, Merav Ahissar
    Abstract
    It is debated whether training with a working memory (WM) task, particularly n-back, can improve general WM and reasoning skills. Most training studies found substantial improvement in the trained task, with little to no transfer to untrained tasks. We hypothesized that training does not increase WM capacity, but instead provides opportunities to develop an show more