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  • 21 Dec 2021 Journal Article Journal of Theoretical Biology

    Competition with abundance-dependent fitness and the dynamics of heterogeneous populations in fluctuating environment

    Abstract

    Species competition takes place in a fluctuating environment, so the selective forces on different populations vary through time. In many realistic situations the mean fitness and the amplitude of its temporal variations are abundance-dependent. Here we present a theory of two-species competition with abundance-dependent stochastic fitness variations and solve for the

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  • 10 Dec 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Research

    Orbitally selective Mott phase in electron-doped twisted transition metal-dichalcogenides: A possible realization of the Kondo lattice model

    Abstract

    Moiré superpotentials in two-dimensional materials allow unprecedented control of the ratio between kinetic and interaction energy. By this they pave the way to study a wide variety of strongly correlated physics under a new light. In particular, the transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are promising candidate “quantum simulators” of the Hubbard model on a triangular

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  • 8 Dec 2021 Journal Article Biophysical Reports

    Optical probing of local membrane potential with fluorescent polystyrene beads

    Abstract

    The study of electrical activity in single cells and local circuits of excitable cells, such as neurons, requires an easy-to-use, high-throughput methodology that allows for the measurement of membrane potential. Investigating the electrical properties in specific subcompartments of neurons, or in a specific type of neurons, introduces additional complexity. An optical

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  • 8 Dec 2021 Journal Article Biophysical Reports

    Rapid ensemble measurement of protein diffusion and probe blinking dynamics in cells

    Simon Sehayek, Xiyu Yi, Shimon Weiss, Paul W Wiseman
    Abstract

    We present a fluorescence fluctuation image correlation analysis method that can rapidly and simultaneously measure the diffusion coefficient, photoblinking rates, and fraction of diffusing particles of fluorescent molecules in cells. Unlike other image correlation techniques, we demonstrated that our method could be applied irrespective of a nonuniformly distributed

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  • 6 Dec 2021 Journal Article Optics Express

    Broadband complex two-mode quadratures for quantum optics

    Abstract

    In their seminal paper, Caves and Schumaker presented a new formalism for quantum optics, intended to serve as a building block for describing two-photon processes, in terms of new, generalized qudratures. The important, revolutionary concept in their formalism was that it was fundamentally two-mode, i.e. the related observables could not be attributed to any single

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  • 23 Nov 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Spatial symmetry breaking by non-local Kerr-lensing in mode-locked lasers

    Abstract

    Kerr-lens mode-locking (KLM) is the work-horse mechanism for generation of ultrashort pulses, where a non-linear lens forms an effective ultrafast saturable absorber within the laser cavity. According to standard theory, the pulse in the cavity is a soliton, with a temporal profile and power determined by the non-linearity to exactly counteract diffraction and dispersion

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  • 23 Nov 2021 Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

    Network-based forecasting of climate phenomena

    Josef Ludescher, Maria Martin, Niklas Boers, Armin Bunde, Catrin Ciemer, Jingfang Fan, Shlomo Havlin, Marlene Kretschmer, Jürgen Kurths, Jakob Runge, Veronika Stolbova, Elena Surovyatkina, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber
    Abstract

    Network theory, as emerging from complex systems science, can provide critical predictive power for mitigating the global warming crisis and other societal challenges. Here we discuss the main differences of this approach to classical numerical modeling and highlight several cases where the network approach substantially improved the prediction of high-impact phenomena:

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  • 18 Nov 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Generalized equipartition for nonlinear multiplicative Langevin dynamics: application to laser-cooled atoms

    Gianmaria Falasco, Eli Barkai, Marco Baiesi
    Abstract

    The virial theorem, and the equipartition theorem in the case of quadratic degrees of freedom, are handy constraints on the statistics of equilibrium systems. Their violation is instrumental in determining how far from equilibrium a driven system might be. We extend the virial theorem to nonequilibrium conditions for Langevin dynamics with nonlinear friction and

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  • 8 Nov 2021 Preprint Scientific Reports

    Effects of mobility restrictions during COVID19 in Italy

    Alex Smolyak, Giovanni Bonaccorsi, Andrea Flori, Fabio Pammolli, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract

    To reduce the spread and the effect of the COVID-19 global pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions have been adopted on multiple occasions by governments. In particular lockdown policies, i.e., generalized mobility restrictions, have been employed to fight the first wave of the pandemic. We analyze data reflecting mobility levels over time in Italy before, during

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  • 6 Nov 2021 Preprint arXiv

    A metric driving local action for global biodiversity conservation

    Axel G Rossberg, Jacob D O'Sullivan, J Christopher D Terry, Nadav M Shnerb
    Abstract

    Difficulties identifying appropriate biodiversity impact metrics remain a major barrier to inclusion of biodiversity considerations in environmentally conscious investment. Here we propose a science-based metric with a simple definition that supports a narrative of biodiversity protection. It links mathematically to a widely used global biodiversity indicator, the Living

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  • 4 Nov 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Long anisotropic absolute refractory periods with rapid rise-times to reliable responsiveness

    Abstract

    Refractoriness is a fundamental property of excitable elements, such as neurons, indicating the probability for re-excitation in a given time-lag, and is typically linked to the neuronal hyperpolarization following an evoked spike. Here we measured the refractory periods (RPs) in neuronal cultures and observed that anisotropic absolute RPs could exceed 20 milliseconds

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  • 2 Nov 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Topological-temporal properties of evolving networks

    Alberto Ceria, Shlomo Havlin, Alan Hanjalic, Huijuan Wang
    Abstract

    Many real-world complex systems including human interactions can be represented by temporal (or evolving) networks, where links activate or deactivate over time. Characterizing temporal networks is crucial to compare such systems and to study the dynamical processes unfolding on them. A systematic method to characterize simultaneously the temporal and topological

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  • 1 Nov 2021 Journal Article New Journal of Physics

    Optimal detection of ultra-broadband bi-photons with quantum nonlinear SU(1,1) interference

    Abstract

    The visibility of nonlinear SU (1, 1) interference directly reflects the nonclassical properties of entangled bi-photons and squeezed light with practically unlimited bandwidth, high efficiency and ultra-high photon flux, orders of magnitude beyond the abilities of standard photo-detectors. We study experimentally the dependence of the SU (1, 1) visibility on the phase

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  • 29 Oct 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Identification and prioritization of urban traffic bottlenecks

    Nimrod Serok, Shlomo Havlin, Efrat Blumenfeld-Lieberthal
    Abstract

    The increasing urbanization process we have been witnessing in the last decades is accompanied by a significant increase in traffic congestion in cities around the world. The effect of the congestion is represented in the enormous time people spent on roads leading to significant money waste and air pollution. Here, we present a new methodology for identification, cost

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  • 25 Oct 2021 Preprint Research Square

    Aging power spectrum of membrane protein transport and other subordinated random walks

    Zachary Fox, Eli Barkai, Diego Krapf
    Abstract

    Single-particle tracking offers detailed information about the motion of molecules in complex environments such as those encountered in live cells, but the interpretation of experimental data is challenging. One of the most powerful tools in the characterization of random processes is the power spectral density. However, because anomalous diffusion processes in complex

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  • 24 Oct 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Gas of sub-recoiled laser cooled atoms described by infinite ergodic theory

    Eli Barkai, Günter Radons, Takuma Akimoto
    Abstract

    The velocity distribution of a classical gas of atoms in thermal equilibrium is the normal Maxwell distribution. It is well known that for sub-recoiled laser cooled atoms L\'evy statistics and deviations from usual ergodic behaviour come into play. Here we show how tools from infinite ergodic theory describe the cool gas. Specifically, we derive the scaling function

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  • 22 Oct 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Super-Resolution imaging of plasmonic Near-fields: Overcoming Emitter Mislocalizations

    Yuting Miao, Robert Boutelle, Anastasia Blake, Vigneshwaran Chandrasekaran, Jennifer A Hollingsworth, Shimon Weiss
    Abstract

    Plasmonic nano-objects have shown great potential in enhancing biological and chemical sensing, light harvesting and energy transfer, and optical and quantum computing to name a few. Therefore, an extensive effort has been vested in optimizing plasmonic systems and exploiting their field enhancement properties. Super-resolution imaging with quantum dots (QDs) is a

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  • 21 Oct 2021 Journal Article Physical Biology

    Ordered hexagonal patterns via notch-delta signaling

    Eial Teomy, David A Kessler, Herbert Levine
    Abstract

    Many developmental processes in biology utilize Notch-Delta signaling to construct an ordered pattern of cellular differentiation. This signaling modality is based on nearest-neighbor contact, as opposed to the more familiar mechanism driven by the release of diffusible ligands. Here, exploiting this ``juxtacrine" property, we present an exact treatment of the pattern

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  • 18 Oct 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Synergetic ferroelectricity and superconductivity in zero-density Dirac semimetals near quantum criticality

    Vladyslav Kozii, Avraham Klein, Rafael M Fernandes, Jonathan Ruhman
    Abstract

    We study superconductivity in a three-dimensional zero-density Dirac semimetal in the proximity of a ferroelectric quantum critical point. We find that the interplay of criticality, inversion-symmetry breaking, and Dirac dispersion gives rise to a robust superconducting state at the charge-neutrality point, where no Fermi surface is present. Using Eliashberg theory, we

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  • 17 Oct 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Interdependent couplings map to thermal, higher-order interactions

    Ivan Bonamassa, Bnaya Gross, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract

    Interdependence is a fundamental ingredient to analyze the stability of many real-world complex systems featuring functional liasons. Yet, physical realizations of this coupling are still unknown, due to the lack of a theoretical framework for their study. To address this gap, we develop an interdependent magnetization framework and show that dependency links between

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  • 16 Oct 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    PySOFI: an open source Python package for SOFI

    Yuting Miao, Shimon Weiss, Xiyu Yi
    Abstract

    Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) is a highly democratizable technique that provides optical super-resolution (SR) without requirement of sophisticated imaging instruments. An open source package for SOFI algorithm is needed to support not only the utilization of SOFI, but also the community adoption and participation for further development of SOFI

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  • 15 Oct 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Origin of the maximal critical temperature disparities in one-layer cuprate superconductors

    Baruch Rosenstein, B Ya Shapiro
    Abstract

    Recently a phonon exchange d - wave pairing mechanism in cuprates was proposed. The phonons are the lateral apical oxygen atoms vibrations. They generate the attractive pairing potential peaked at X point of the Brillouin zone, V (k) = exp [-2kda], where da is distance from the CuO planes. The model explains a rather paradoxical well known negative correlation of the

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  • 14 Oct 2021 Book Chapter Methodological Approaches for Sleep and Vigilance Research

    Physiologic systems dynamics, coupling and network interactions across the sleep-wake cycle

    Plamen Ch Ivanov, Ronny P Bartsch
    Abstract

    We review recent progress in understanding fundamental aspects of physiologic regulation during wake and sleep based on modern data-driven, analytic, and computational approaches with focus on the complex dynamics of individual physiological systems, their transient forms of coupling, and the role of network interactions among physiological systems in generating states

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  • 13 Oct 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Scaling of variations in traveling distances and times of taxi routes

    Feng Xiaoyan, Huijun Sun, Bnaya Gross, Jianjun Wu, Daqing Li, Xin Yang, Dong Zhou, Ziyou Gao, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract

    The importance of understanding human mobility patterns has led many studies to examine their spatial-temporal scaling laws. These studies mainly reveal that human travel can be highly non-homogeneous with power-law scaling distributions of distances and times. However, investigating and quantifying the extent of variability in time and space when traveling the same

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  • 11 Oct 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Deterministic Entanglement Transmission on Series-Parallel Quantum Networks

    Xiangyi Meng, Jianxi Gao, Shlomo Havlin, Andrei E Ruckenstein
    Abstract

    The performance of the entanglement transmission task, i.e., distributing entanglement between two arbitrarily distant nodes in a large-scale quantum network (QN), is notably benchmarked by the classical entanglement percolation (CEP) scheme. Improvement of entanglement transmission beyond CEP can only be achieved, with great loss of generality, by nonscalable strategies

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  • 10 Oct 2021 Journal Article Applied Network Science

    Universal scaling of human flow remain unchanged during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Yohei Shid, Hideki Takayasu, Shlomo Havlin, Misako Takayasu
    Abstract

    To prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments in various countries have severely restricted the movement of people. The large amount of detailed human location data obtained from mobile phone users is useful for understanding the change of flow patterns of people under the effect of pandemic. In this paper, we observe the synchronized human flow during

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  • 10 Oct 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Local Field Potential Journey into the Basal Ganglia

    Eitan E Asher, Maya Slovik, Rae Mitelman, Hagai Bergman, Shlomo Havlin, Shay Moshel
    Abstract

    Local Field potential (LFP) in the basal ganglia (BG) nuclei in the brain have attracted much research and clinical interest. However, the origin of this signal is still under debate throughout the last decades. The question is whether it is a local subthreshold phenomenon, synaptic input to neurons or it is a flow of electrical signals merged as volume conduction which

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  • 6 Oct 2021 Journal Article Journal of Cell Biology

    Subunit cooperation in the Get1/2 receptor promotes tail-anchored membrane protein insertion

    Un Seng Chio, Yumeng Liu, SangYoon Chung, Woo Jun Shim, Sowmya Chandrasekar, Shimon Weiss, Shu-ou Shan
    Abstract

    The guided entry of tail-anchored protein (GET) pathway, in which the Get3 ATPase delivers an essential class of tail-anchored membrane proteins (TAs) to the Get1/2 receptor at the endoplasmic reticulum, provides a conserved mechanism for TA biogenesis in eukaryotic cells. The membrane-associated events of this pathway remain poorly understood. Here we show that complex

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  • 6 Oct 2021 Journal Article Global Ecology and Biogeography

    A framework for quantifying deviations from dynamic equilibrium theory

    Michael Kalyuzhny, Curtis H Flather, Nadav M Shnerb, Ronen Kadmon
    Abstract

    Community assembly is governed by colonization and extinction processes, and the simplest model describing it is Dynamic Equilibrium (DE) theory, which assumes that communities are shaped solely by stochastic colonization and extinction events. Despite its potential to serve as a null model for community dynamics, there is currently no accepted methodology for measuring

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  • 5 Oct 2021 Journal Article Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences

    Fluorophore spectroscopy in aqueous glycerol solution: the interactions of glycerol with the fluorophore

    Abstract

    A common perception exists that glycerol provides an inert-like environment modifying viscosity and index of refraction by its various concentrations in aqueous solution. Said perception is herein challenged by investigating the effects of the glycerol environment on the spectroscopic properties of fluorescein, as a representative fluorophore, using steady-state and

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  • 4 Oct 2021 Journal Article Nature Communications

    Unveiling unconventional magnetism at the surface of Sr2RuO4

    Rosalba Fittipaldi, R Hartmann, M T Mercaldo, Sachio Komori, Anders Bjørlig, Wonshik Kyung, Yuuki Yasui, Takuto Miyoshi, L A B Olde Olthof, C M Palomares Garcia, Veronica Granata, I Keren, Wataru Higemoto, Andreas Suter, Thomas Prokscha, Alfonso Romano, Canio Noce, Chuna Kim, Yoshiteru Maeno, Elke Scheer, Beena Kalisky, J W A Robinson, Mario Cuoco, Zaher Salman, Antonio Vecchione, A Di Bernardo
    Abstract

    Materials with strongly correlated electrons often exhibit interesting physical properties. An example of these materials is the layered oxide perovskite Sr2RuO4, which has been intensively investigated due to its unusual properties. Whilst the debate on the symmetry of the superconducting state in Sr2RuO4 is still ongoing, a deeper understanding of the Sr2RuO4 normal

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  • 1 Oct 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Big jump principle for heavy-tailed random walks with correlated increments

    Abstract

    The big jump principle explains the emergence of extreme events for physical quantities modelled by a sum of independent and identically distributed random variables which are heavy-tailed. Extreme events are large values of the sum and they are solely dominated by the largest summand called the big jump. Recently, the principle was introduced into physical sciences

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  • 30 Sep 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Transitions in the Ergodicity of Subrecoil-Laser-Cooled Gases

    Eli Barkai, Günter Radons, Takuma Akimoto
    Abstract

    With subrecoil-laser-cooled atoms, one may reach nanokelvin temperatures while the ergodic properties of these systems do not follow usual statistical laws. Instead, due to an ingenious trapping mechanism in momentum space, power-law-distributed sojourn times are found for the cooled particles. Here, we show how this gives rise to a statistical-mechanical framework

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  • 27 Sep 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Discrete sampling of extreme events modifies their statistics

    Abstract

    We explore the extreme value (EV) statistics of correlated random variables modeled via Langevin equations. Starting with an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, we find that when the trajectory is sampled discretely, long measurement times make the EV distribution converge to that originating from independent and identically distributed variables drawn from the process'

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  • 23 Sep 2021 Preprint arXiv

    The time-identity tradeoff

    Abstract

    Distinguishability plays a major role in quantum and statistical physics. When particles are identical their wave function must be either symmetric or antisymmetric under permutations and the number of microscopic states, which determines entropy, is counted up to permutations. When the particles are distinguishable, wavefunctions have no symmetry and each permutation

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  • 23 Sep 2021 Book Chapter Handbook on Cities and Complexity

    Studying the dynamics of urban traffic flows using percolation: a new methodology for real-time urban and transportation planning

    Nimrod Serok, Orr Levy, Shlomo Havlin, Efrat Blumenfeld-Lieberthal
    Abstract

    The nature of urban areas has always been affected by the traffic flows in their streets, as the volume of the traffic influences the location of businesses, residential blocks, the development of real estate, land values, built density, etc. In this Chapter, we suggest, based on percolation theory, studying the relations between the static streets-network infrastructure

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  • 20 Sep 2021 Conference Paper 2021 Fifteenth International Congress on Artificial Materials for Novel Wave Phenomena (Metamaterials)

    Two-Dimensional Solid-State Random Laser

    Abstract

    We present random lasing action on a two dimensional (2D) active surface incorporated with randomly distributed air holes: responsible for coherent multiple scattering and couple out the radiation normal to surface.

  • 16 Sep 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Weyl Semimetal Path to Valley Filtering in Graphene

    Ahmed Khalifa, Ribhu K Kaul, Efrat Shimshoni, Herbert Fertig, Ganpathy Murthy
    Abstract

    We propose a device in which a sheet of graphene is coupled to a Weyl semimetal, allowing for the physical access to the study of tunneling from two- to three-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. Because of the reconstructed band structure, we find that this device acts as a robust valley filter for electrons in the graphene sheet. We show that, by appropriate alignment

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  • 15 Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of Molecular Liquids

    Binary mixtures of homologous room-temperature ionic liquids: Temperature and composition evolution of the nanoscale structure

    Diego Pontoni, Marco DiMichiel, Moshe Deutsch
    Abstract

    Using x-ray scattering from binary mixtures of [Cnmim][NTf2] room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) with n = 8 , 12 we study their nanoscale layering and its evolution with temperature T and mole fraction x of [C8mim][NTf2]. The layers’ lateral structure, dominated by the common headgroups’ Coulomb interaction in the layer’s polar slab, and by the chain-chain van der

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  • 8 Sep 2021 Journal Article Biophysical Reports

    Point-localized, site-specific membrane potential optical recording by single fluorescent nanodiscs

    Abstract

    Nanodisc technology was implemented as a platform for voltage nanosensors. A fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer (FRET)- based voltage-sensing scheme employing fluorescent nanodiscs and the hydrophobic ion dipicrylamine was developed and utilized to optically record membrane potentials on the single-nanodisc level. Ensemble and single-nanosensor recordings

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  • 7 Sep 2021 Journal Article Frontiers in Earth Science

    An Operational Earthquake Forecasting Experiment for Israel: Preliminary Results

    Giuseppe Falcone, Ilaria Spassiani, Yosef Ashkenazy, Avi Shapira, Rami Hofstetter, Shlomo Havlin, Warner Marzocchi
    Abstract

    Operational Earthquake Forecasting (OEF) aims to deliver timely and reliable forecasts that may help to mitigate seismic risk during earthquake sequences. In this paper, we build the first OEF system for the State of Israel, and we evaluate its reliability. This first version of the OEF system is composed of one forecasting model, which is based on a stochastic clustering

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  • 3 Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical

    Randomly repeated measurements on quantum systems: Correlations and topological invariants of the quantum evolution

    Klaus Ziegler, Eli Barkai, David A Kessler
    Abstract

    Randomly repeated measurements during the evolution of a closed quantum system create a sequence of probabilities for the first detection of a certain quantum state. The related discrete monitored evolution for the return of the quantum system to its initial state is investigated. We found that the mean number of measurements until the first detection is an integer

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  • 3 Sep 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Top-down identification of keystone species in the microbiome

    Abstract

    Keystone species in ecological communities are native species that play an especially important role in the stability of their ecosystem and can also be potentially used as its main drivers. However, we still lack an effective framework for identifying these species from the available metagenomic data without the notoriously difficult step of reconstructing the detailed

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  • 3 Sep 2021 Journal Article Europhysics Letters

    Significant anisotropic neuronal refractory period plasticity

    Abstract

    Refractory periods are an unavoidable feature of excitable elements, resulting in necessary time-lags for re-excitation. Herein, we measure neuronal absolute refractory periods (ARPs) in synaptic blocked neuronal cultures. In so doing, we show that their duration can be significantly extended by dozens of milliseconds using preceding evoked spikes generated by extracellular

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  • 2 Sep 2021 Preprint Physical Review B

    Observing Floquet topological order by symmetry resolution

    Abstract

    Symmetry protected topological order in one dimension leads to protected degeneracies between symmetry blocks of the reduced density matrix. In the presence of periodic driving, topological Floquet phases can be identified in terms of a cycling of these symmetry blocks between different charge quantum numbers. We discuss an example of this phenomenon with an Ising Z2

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  • 1 Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth

    Asymmetry in Earthquake Interevent Time Intervals

    Yongwen Zhang, Yosef Ashkenazy, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract

    Here we focus on a basic statistical measure of earthquake catalogs that has not been studied before, the asymmetry of interevent time series (e.g., reflecting the tendency to have more aftershocks than spontaneous earthquakes). We define the asymmetry metric as the ratio between the number of positive interevent time increments minus negative increments and the total

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  • 30 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Measurement induced quantum walks

    Abstract

    We investigate a tight binding quantum walk on a graph. Repeated stroboscopic measurements of the position of the particle yield a measured "trajectory", and a combination of classical and quantum mechanical properties for the walk are observed. We explore the effects of the measurements on the spreading of the packet on a one dimensional line, showing that except for

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  • 30 Aug 2021 Journal Article Communications Biology

    Connectivity of EEG synchronization networks increases for Parkinson’s disease patients with freezing of gait

    Abstract

    Freezing of gait (FoG), a paroxysmal gait disturbance commonly experienced by patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), is characterized by sudden episodes of inability to generate effective forward stepping. Recent studies have shown an increase in beta frequency of local-field potentials in the basal-ganglia during FoG, however, comprehensive research on the synchronization

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  • 26 Aug 2021 Journal Article Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences

    The Dynamics of Lamin a During the Cell Cycle

    Abstract

    Lamin proteins play an essential role in maintaining the nuclear organization and integrity; and lamin A, in particular, plays a major role in the whole volume of the nuclear interior. Although the nucleus is highly organized, it is rather dynamic, it affects crucial nuclear processes and its organization must change as cells progress through the cell cycle. Although

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  • 26 Aug 2021 Journal Article The Astrophysical Journal Letters

    Predicting spectral parameters in the backscattering dominated model for the prompt phase of GRBs

    Mukesh K Vyas, Asaf Pe'er, David Eichler
    Abstract

    We present new results of the backscattering dominated prompt emission model in which the photons generated through pair annihilation at the centre of a gamma ray burst (GRB) are backscattered through Compton scattering by an outflowing stellar cork. %We show that the produced spectral features are capable of producing spectral features that are widely observed in GRBs

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  • 26 Aug 2021 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Measurements of polarization dependencies in parametric down-conversion of x rays into ultraviolet radiation

    Sason Sofer, Or Sefi, A Gareth A Nisbet, Sharon Shwartz
    Abstract

    We present measurements of the polarization dependencies of the x-ray signal photons generated by the effect of parametric down-conversion of x rays into ultraviolet radiation. The results exhibit pronounced discrepancies with the classical model for the nonlinearity but qualitatively agree with a recently developed quantum mechanical theory for the nonlinear interaction

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  • 26 Aug 2021 Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering

    Reconstruction of Pulse Wave and Respiration from Wrist Accelerometer During Sleep

    Johannes Zschocke, Julian Leube, Martin Glos, Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Thomas Penzel, Ronny P Bartsch, Jan W Kantelhardt
    Abstract

    Objective: Nocturnal recordings of heart rate and respiratory rate usually require several separate sensors or electrodes attached to different body parts -- a disadvantage for at-home screening tests and for large cohort studies. In this paper, we demonstrate that a state-of-the-art accelerometer placed at subjects' wrists can be used to derive reliable signal

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  • 26 Aug 2021 Journal Article Elements

    Invasion growth rate and its relevance to persistence: a response to Technical Comment by Ellner et al

    Jayant Pande, Tak Fung, Ryan A Chisholm, Nadav M Shnerb
    Abstract

    Ellner et al. (2020) state that identifying the mechanisms producing positive invasion growth rates (IGR) is useful in characterising species persistence. We agree about the importance of the sign of IGR as a binary indicator of persistence, but question whether its magnitude provides much information once the sign is given.

  • 25 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    From prethermalization to chaos in periodically driven coupled rotors

    Abstract

    Periodically driven (Floquet) systems are said to prethermalize when their energy absorption is very slow for long time. This effect was first discovered in quantum spin models, where the heating rate is exponentially small in the ratio between the driving frequency and the spin bandwidth. Recently, it was shown that prethermalization occurs also in classical systems

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  • 24 Aug 2021 Journal Article SciPost Physics

    Statistical Floquet prethermalization of the Bose-Hubbard model

    Abstract

    The manipulation of many-body systems often involves time-dependent forces that cause unwanted heating. One strategy to suppress heating is to use time-periodic (Floquet) forces at large driving frequencies. For quantum spin systems with bounded spectra, it was shown rigorously that the heating rate is exponentially small in the driving frequency. Recently, the exponential

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  • 24 Aug 2021 Book Chapter Complex Media and Percolation Theory

    Percolation in complex networks

    Abstract

    Component - The set of nodes reachable from a given node. The nodes of a component are all reachable from each other. Degree - Number of edges emanating from a node. Giant component - The component of a graph with size (number of nodes) of order of the number of nodes in the graph. Graph - A set of nodes (sites) and edges (links or bonds) connecting them. Loop - A path

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  • 24 Aug 2021 Journal Article Astronomy and Astrophysics

    SN 2020bqj: a Type Ibn supernova with a long lasting peak plateau

    Erik C Kool, Emir Karamehmetoglu, Jesper Sollerman, Steve Schulze, Ragnhild Lunnan, T M Reynolds, Cristina Barbarino, Eric C Bellm, Kishalay De, Dmitry A Duev, Christoffer Fremling, V Zach Golkhou, Melissa L Graham, David A Green, Assaf Horesh, Stephen Kaye, Y-L Kim, Russ R Laher, Frank J Masci, Jakob Nordin, Daniel A Perley, E Sterl Phinney, Michael Porter, Daniel J Reiley, Hector P Rodriguez, Jan Van Roestel, Ben Rusholme, Yashvi Sharma, Itai Sfaradi, Maayane T Soumagnac, Kirsty Taggart, Leonardo Tartaglia, David J Williams, Lin Yan
    Abstract
    Context. Type Ibn supernovae (SNe Ibn) are a rare class of stripped envelope supernovae interacting with a helium-rich circumstellar medium (CSM). The majority of the SNe Ibn reported in the literature display a surprising homogeneity in their fast-evolving lightcurves and are typically found in actively starforming spiral galaxies. Aims. We present the discovery and the… show more
  • 23 Aug 2021 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Probing the metallic energy spectrum beyond the Thouless energy scale using singular value decomposition

    Abstract

    Disordered quantum systems feature an energy scale known as the Thouless energy. For energy ranges below this scale, the properties of the energy spectrum can be described by random matrix theory. Above this scale a different behavior sets in. For a metallic system it was shown long ago by Altshuler and Shklovskii [Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 127 (1986)] that the number variance

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  • 20 Aug 2021 Journal Article Optica

    Localized modes revealed in Random Lasers

    Abstract

    In sufficiently strong scattering media, light transport is suppressed and modes are exponentially localized. Anderson-like localized states have long been recognized as potential candidates for high- optical modes for low-threshold, cost-effective random lasers. Operating in this regime remains, however, a challenge since Anderson localization is difficult to achieve

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  • 19 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Simulating long-range hopping with periodically-driven superconducting qubits

    Abstract

    Quantum computers are a leading platform for the simulation of many-body physics. This task has been recently facilitated by the possibility to program directly the time-dependent pulses sent to the computer. Here, we use this feature to simulate quantum lattice models with long-range hopping. Our approach is based on an exact mapping between periodically driven quantum

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  • 19 Aug 2021 Journal Article New Journal of Physics

    Nuclear reaction network unveils novel reaction patterns based on stellar energies

    Chunheng Jiang, Boleslaw K Szymanski, Jie Lian, Shlomo Havlin, Jianxi Gao
    Abstract

    Despite the advances in discovering new nuclei, modeling microscopic nuclear structure, nuclear reactors, and stellar nucleosynthesis, we still lack a systemic tool, such as a network approach, to understand the structure and dynamics of over 70 thousands reactions compiled in JINA REACLIB. To this end, we develop an analysis framework, under which it is simple to know

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  • 16 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Aslamazov Larkin Conductivity in Weyl Semimetals

    Abstract

    The Aslamazov-Larkin conductivity (ALC) in the Weyl semi-metals is calculated both for Type-I and Type II for different dimensionality and magnetic fields. The ALC strongly depends on the tilt parameter of the dispersion relation cone. While the 3D and 2D the Aslamazov -Larkin conductivity slightly depends on tilt parameter in Type-I phase and increases in the Type-II

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  • 15 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Discrete sampling of correlated random variables modifies the long-time behavior of their extreme value statistics

    Abstract

    We consider the extreme value statistics of correlated random variables that arise from a Langevin equation. Recently, it was shown that the extreme values of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process follow a different distribution than those originating from its equilibrium measure, composed of independent and identically distributed Gaussian random variables. Here, we first

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  • 5 Aug 2021 Journal Article Review of Scientific Instruments

    Setup for pressurizing thin films through the superconductor–insulator transition

    R Cohen, Mark Nikolaevsky, R Salem, Aviad Frydman
    Abstract

    We describe an experimental setup designed for transport measurement of thin disordered superconducting films as a function of pressure up to several GPa. We use a specially designed single screw diamond anvil cell that allows the gradual increase of high pressure at cryogenic temperatures. By depositing amorphous films of disordered superconducting indium oxide directly

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  • 2 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Coherence properties of a spin in a squeezed resonator

    Abstract

    A promising venue for hybrid quantum computation involves the strong coupling between impurity spins and superconducting resonators. One strategy to control and enhance this coupling is to prepare the resonator in a non-classical state, such as a squeezed state. In this work, we theoretically study the effects of these states on the coherence properties of the spin. We

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  • 1 Aug 2021 Journal Article The Astrophysical Journal,

    An Observational Signature of Sub-equipartition Magnetic Fields in the Spectra of Black Hole Binaries

    Abstract

    A common assumption used in the study of accretion disks is that the magnetic energy density and the kinetic energy density should be in equipartition. This assumption relies on the faster growth rate of the magnetic field strength against the kinetic energy of the particles in the flow, for decreasing radius, combined with a dissipation mechanism that tends towards

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  • 1 Aug 2021 Journal Article Optics Letters

    Transient electromagnetic singularities in random three-dimensional optical fields

    Abstract

    We show that on all generic circular or elliptical paths in a random three-dimensional electromagnetic field, the electric and magnetic field vectors generate a cylinder throughout most of the optical cycle. At some point in the cycle, however, this cylinder transforms into a twisted ribbon with two sequential 180° twists. This ribbon exists for a short time and then

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  • Aug 2021 Journal Article The American Naturalist

    Alternative States in Plant Communities Driven by a Life-History Trade-Off and Demographic Stochasticity

    Niv DeMalach, Nadav M Shnerb, Tadashi Fukami
    Abstract

    Life-history trade-offs among species are major drivers of community assembly. Most studies investigate how trade-offs promote deterministic coexistence of species. It remains unclear how trade-offs may instead promote historically contingent exclusion of species, where species dominance is affected by initial abundances, causing alternative community states via priority

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  • 30 Jul 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Complexity-stability relationship in empirical microbial ecosystems

    Yogev Yonatan, Guy Amit, Jonathan Friedman, Amir Bashan
    Abstract

    May9s stability theory, which holds that large ecosystems can be stable up to a critical level of complexity, a product of the number of resident species and the intensity of their interactions, has been a central paradigm in theoretical ecology. So far, however, empirically demonstrating this theory in real ecological systems has been a long-standing challenge, with

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  • 27 Jul 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Optimization of robustness based on reinforced nodes in a modular network

    Abstract

    Many systems such as critical infrastructure exhibit a modular structure with many links within the modules and few links between them. One approach to increase the robustness of these systems is to reinforce a fraction of the nodes in each module, so that the reinforced nodes provide additional needed sources for themselves as well as for their nearby neighborhood

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  • 20 Jul 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Anomalous statistics of laser-cooled atoms in dissipative optical lattices

    Gadi Afek, Nir Davidson, David A Kessler, Eli Barkai
    Abstract

    In this Colloquium we discuss the anomalous kinetics of atoms in dissipative optical lattices, focusing on the ``Sisyphus" laser cooling mechanism. The cooling scheme induces a friction force that decreases to zero for high atomic momentum, which in turn leads to unusual statistical features. We study, using a Fokker-Planck equation describing the semi-classical limit

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  • 19 Jul 2021 Journal Article The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

    Anomalous Temperature-Controlled Concave–Convex Switching of Curved Oil–Water Menisci

    Abstract

    While the curvature of the classical liquid surfaces exhibits only a weak temperature dependence, we demonstrate here a reversible temperature-tunable concave–convex shape switching in capillary-contained, surfactant-decorated, oil–water interfaces. The observed switching gives rise to a concave–convex shape transition, which takes place as a function of the width of

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  • 14 Jul 2021 Journal Article Journal of Visualized Experiments

    Fabrication of Magnetic Platforms for Micron-Scale Organization of Interconnected Neurons

    Abstract

    The ability to direct neurons into organized neural networks has great implications for regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and bio-interfacing. Many studies have aimed at directing neurons using chemical and topographical cues. However, reports of organizational control on a micron-scale over large areas are scarce. Here, an effective method has been described

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  • 14 Jul 2021 Journal Article Scientific Reports

    Unveiling the nature of interaction between semantics and phonology in lexical access based on multilayer networks

    Orr Levy, Yoed N Kenett, Orr Oxenberg, Nichol Castro, Simon De Deyne, Michael S Vitevitch, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract

    An essential aspect of human communication is the ability to access and retrieve information from ones’ ‘mental lexicon’. This lexical access activates phonological and semantic components of concepts, yet the question whether and how these two components relate to each other remains widely debated. We harness tools from network science to construct a large-scale

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  • 13 Jul 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Long chain lipids facilitate insertion of large nanoparticles into membranes of small unilamellar vesicles

    Abstract

    Insertion of hydrophobic nanoparticles into phospholipid bilayers is limited to small particles that can incorporate into the hydrophobic membrane core in between the two lipid leaflets. Incorporation of nanoparticles above this size limit requires development of challenging surface engineering methodologies. In principle, increasing membrane thickness should facilitate

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  • 13 Jul 2021 Journal Article Journal of Physics A

    Accurately approximating extreme value statistics

    Abstract

    We consider the extreme value statistics of $N$ independent and identically distributed random variables, which is a classic problem in probability theory. When $N\to\infty$, fluctuations around the maximum of the variables are described by the Fisher-Tippett-Gnedenko theorem, which states that the distribution of maxima converges to one out of three limiting forms

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  • 7 Jul 2021 Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics

    Shock wave in series connected Josephson transmission line: Theoretical foundations and effects of resistive elements

    Abstract

    We analytically study shock wave in the Josephson transmission line (JTL) in the presence of ohmic dissipation. When ohmic resistors shunt the Josephson junctions (JJ) or are introduced in series with the ground capacitors the shock is broadened. When ohmic resistors are in series with the JJ, the shock remains sharp, same as it was in the absence of dissipation. In

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  • 2 Jul 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Efficient Interaction of Heralded X-Ray Photons with a Beam Splitter

    Edward Strizhevsky, D Borodin, A Schori, S Francoual, Ralf Röhlsberger, Sharon Shwartz
    Abstract

    We report the experimental demonstration of efficient interaction of multi-kilo-electron-volt heralded x-ray photons with a beam splitter. The measured heralded photon rate at the outputs of the beam splitter is about 0.01 counts / s which is comparable to the rate in the absence of the beam splitter. We use this beam splitter together with photon number and photon

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  • 30 Jun 2021 Journal Article Experimental Astronomy

    Gamma Ray Burst studies with THESEUS

    Giancarlo Ghirlanda, Ruben Salvaterra, M Toffano, S Ronchini, C Guidorzi, Gor Oganesyan, S Ascenzi, M G Bernardini, A E Camisasca, Sandro Mereghetti, L Nava, M E Ravasio, M Branchesi, Alberto J Castro-Tirado, Lorenzo Amati, Andrew Blain, Enrico Bozzo, P T O'Brien, Diego Götz, Emeric Le Floch, J P Osborne, Piero Rosati, Giulia Stratta, Nial R Tanvir, A I Bogomazov, P D'Avanzo, M Hafizi, S Mandhai, A Melandri, Asaf Pe'er, Martin Topinka, S D Vergani, Silvia Zane
    Abstract

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful transients in the Universe, over-shining for a few seconds all other $\gamma$-ray sky sources. Their emission is produced within narrowly collimated relativistic jets launched after the core-collapse of massive stars or the merger of compact binaries. THESEUS will open a new window for the use of GRBs as cosmological tools

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  • 29 Jun 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Cascading failures in anisotropic interdependent networks of spatial modular structures

    Dana Vaknin, Amir Bashan, Lidia A Braunstein, Sergey V Buldyrev, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract

    The structure of real-world multilayer infrastructure systems usually exhibits anisotropy due to constraints of the embedding space. For example, geographical features like mountains, rivers and shores influence the architecture of critical infrastructure networks. Moreover, such spatial networks are often non-homogeneous but rather have a modular structure with dense

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  • 29 Jun 2021 Preprint TechRxiv

    Effect of Coil Dimensions on Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles

    Abstract

    We explore the effects of various receiver coil dimensions and configurations on power transfer efficiency and cost of operation, using advanced simulation tools. We demonstrate that the spatial distribution of the magnetic field leads to a non-monotonic dependence of the coupling coefficient on coil size. Thus, an optimal coil size, where the coupling coefficient peaks

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  • 26 Jun 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Spatial correlations in geographical spreading of COVID-19 in USA

    Troy McMahon, Adrian Chan, Shlomo Havlin, Lazaros K Gallos
    Abstract

    The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has followed complex pathways, largely attributed to the high virus infectivity, human travel patterns, and the implementation of multiple mitigation measures. The resulting geographic patterns describe the evolution of the epidemic and can indicate areas which are at risk of an outbreak. Here, we analyze the spatial correlations

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  • 25 Jun 2021 Journal Article Astronomy and Astrophysics

    SN 2018ijp: the explosion of a stripped-envelope star within a dense H-rich shell?

    Leonardo Tartaglia, Jesper Sollerman, Cristina Barbarino, Francesco Taddia, Elena Mason, Marco Berton, Kirsty Taggart, Eric C Bellm, Kishalay De, Sara Frederick, Christoffer Fremling, Avishay Gal-Yam, V Zach Golkhou, Melissa L Graham, Anna Y Q Ho, Tiara Hung, Stephen Kaye, Y-L Kim, Russ R Laher, Frank J Masci, Daniel A Perley, M D Porter, Daniel J Reiley, Reed Riddle, Ben Rusholme, Maayane T Soumagnac, Richard Walters
    Abstract

    In this paper, we discuss the outcomes of the follow-up campaign of SN 2018ijp, discovered as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility survey for optical transients. Its first spectrum shows similarities to broad-lined Type Ic supernovae around maximum light, whereas later spectra display strong signatures of interaction between rapidly expanding ejecta and a dense H-rich

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  • 25 Jun 2021 Reply to Comment Physical Review Letters

    Reply to Comment on "Faceting and flattening of emulsion droplets: a mechanical model" by Haas et al

    Ireth Garcia-Aguilar, Ayelet Atkins, Piermarco Fonda, Eli Sloutskin, Luca Giomi
    Abstract

    In their Comment [arXiv:2102.03842], Haas et al. advance two hypotheses on the nature of the shape transformations observed in surfactant-stabilized emulsion droplets, as the theoretical models that us [Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 038001 (2021)] and others [P. A. Haas et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 088001 (2017), Phys. Rev. Research 1, 023017 (2019)] have introduced to account

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  • 22 Jun 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Anomalous Hydrodynamics in a One-Dimensional Electronic Fluid

    I V Protopopov, Rickmoy Samanta, Alexander D Mirlin, D B Gutman
    Abstract

    We construct multimode viscous hydrodynamics for one-dimensional spinless electrons. Depending on the scale, the fluid has six (shortest lengths), four (intermediate, exponentially broad regime), or three (asymptotically long scales) hydrodynamic modes. Interaction between hydrodynamic modes leads to anomalous scaling of physical observables and waves propagating in

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  • 22 Jun 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Quantifying invasibility

    Jayant Pande, Yehonatan Tsubery, Nadav M Shnerb
    Abstract

    Invasibility, the chance of a population to grow from rarity and to establish a large-abundance colony, plays a fundamental role in population genetics, ecology, and evolution. For many decades, the mean growth rate when rare has been employed as an invasion criterion. Recent analyses have shown that this criterion fails as a quantitative metric for invasibility, with

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  • 21 Jun 2021 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Robust gapless superconductivity in 4Hb-TaS2

    David Dentelski, Ezra Day-Roberts, Turan Birol, Rafael M Fernandes, Jonathan Ruhman
    Abstract

    The superconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) 4Hb-TaS2 consists of alternating layers of H and T structures, which in their bulk form are metallic and Mott insulating, respectively. Recently, this compound has been proposed as a candidate chiral superconductor, due to an observed enhancement of the muon-spin relaxation at Tc. 4Hb-TaS2 also exhibits a puzzling

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  • 16 Jun 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Augmenting the Sensing Performance of Entangled Photon Pairs through Asymmetry

    Abstract

    We analyze theoretically and experimentally cases of asymmetric detection, stimulation and loss within a quantum nonlinear interferometer of entangled pairs. We show that the visibility of the SU(1,1) interference directly discerns between loss on the measured mode (signal), as opposed to the conjugated mode (idler). This asymmetry also affects the phase sensitivity of

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  • 14 Jun 2021 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Phonon mechanism explanation of the superconductivity dichotomy between FeSe and FeS monolayers on SrTiO3 and other substrates

    Baruch Rosenstein, B Ya Shapiro
    Abstract

    It was observed recently [Shigekawa et al., PNAS 116, 2470 (2019)] that while monolayer iron chalcigenide FeSe on a SrTiO3 (STO) substrate has a very high critical temperature, its chemical and structural twin material FeS/STO has a very low Tc, if any. To explain this, the substrate interfacial phonon model of superconductivity in iron chalcogenides is further developed

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  • 13 Jun 2021 Journal Article Nanomaterials

    Screening in Graphene: Response to External Static Electric Field and an Image-Potential Problem

    Viatcheslav M Silkin, Eugene Kogan, Godfrey Gumbs
    Abstract

    We present a detailed first-principles investigation of the response of a free-standing graphene sheet to an external perpendicular static electric field E. The charge density distribution in the vicinity of the graphene monolayer that is caused by E was determined using the pseudopotential density-functional theory approach. Different geometries were considered. The

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