Latest Publications
  • 10 Oct 2021 Journal Article Applied Network Science

    Universal scaling of human flow remain unchanged during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Yohei Shid, Hideki Takayasu, Shlomo Havlin, Misako Takayasu
    Abstract
    To prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments in various countries have severely restricted the movement of people. The large amount of detailed human location data obtained from mobile phone users is useful for understanding the change of flow patterns of people under the effect of pandemic. In this paper, we observe the synchronized human flow during… show more
  • 5 Oct 2021 Journal Article Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences

    Fluorophore spectroscopy in aqueous glycerol solution: the interactions of glycerol with the fluorophore

    Abstract
    A common perception exists that glycerol provides an inert-like environment modifying viscosity and index of refraction by its various concentrations in aqueous solution. Said perception is herein challenged by investigating the effects of the glycerol environment on the spectroscopic properties of fluorescein, as a representative fluorophore, using steady-state and… show more
  • 27 Sep 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Discrete sampling of extreme events modifies their statistics

    Abstract
    We explore the extreme value (EV) statistics of correlated random variables modeled via Langevin equations. Starting with an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, we find that when the trajectory is sampled discretely, long measurement times make the EV distribution converge to that originating from independent and identically distributed variables drawn from the process'… show more
  • 23 Sep 2021 Preprint arXiv

    The time-identity tradeoff

    Abstract
    Distinguishability plays a major role in quantum and statistical physics. When particles are identical their wave function must be either symmetric or antisymmetric under permutations and the number of microscopic states, which determines entropy, is counted up to permutations. When the particles are distinguishable, wavefunctions have no symmetry and each permutation… show more
  • 23 Sep 2021 Book Chapter Handbook on Cities and Complexity

    Studying the dynamics of urban traffic flows using percolation: a new methodology for real-time urban and transportation planning

    Nimrod Serok, Orr Levy, Shlomo Havlin, Efrat Blumenfeld-Lieberthal
    Abstract
    The nature of urban areas has always been affected by the traffic flows in their streets, as the volume of the traffic influences the location of businesses, residential blocks, the development of real estate, land values, built density, etc. In this Chapter, we suggest, based on percolation theory, studying the relations between the static streets-network infrastructure… show more
  • 16 Sep 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Weyl Semimetal Path to Valley Filtering in Graphene

    Ahmed Khalifa, Ribhu K Kaul, Efrat Shimshoni, Herbert Fertig, Ganpathy Murthy
    Abstract
    We propose a device in which a sheet of graphene is coupled to a Weyl semimetal, allowing for the physical access to the study of tunneling from two- to three-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. Because of the reconstructed band structure, we find that this device acts as a robust valley filter for electrons in the graphene sheet. We show that, by appropriate alignment… show more
  • 15 Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of Molecular Liquids

    Binary mixtures of homologous room-temperature ionic liquids: Temperature and composition evolution of the nanoscale structure

    Diego Pontoni, Marco DiMichiel, Moshe Deutsch
    Abstract
    Using x-ray scattering from binary mixtures of [Cnmim][NTf2] room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) with n = 8 , 12 we study their nanoscale layering and its evolution with temperature T and mole fraction x of [C8mim][NTf2]. The layers’ lateral structure, dominated by the common headgroups’ Coulomb interaction in the layer’s polar slab, and by the chain-chain van der Waals… show more
  • 8 Sep 2021 Journal Article Biophysical Reports

    Point-localized, site-specific membrane potential optical recording by single fluorescent nanodiscs

    Abstract
    Nanodisc technology was implemented as a platform for voltage nanosensors. A fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer (FRET)- based voltage-sensing scheme employing fluorescent nanodiscs and the hydrophobic ion dipicrylamine was developed and utilized to optically record membrane potentials on the single-nanodisc level. Ensemble and single-nanosensor recordings… show more
  • 7 Sep 2021 Journal Article Frontiers in Earth Science

    An Operational Earthquake Forecasting Experiment for Israel: Preliminary Results

    Giuseppe Falcone, Ilaria Spassiani, Yosef Ashkenazy, Avi Shapira, Rami Hofstetter, Shlomo Havlin, Warner Marzocchi
    Abstract
    Operational Earthquake Forecasting (OEF) aims to deliver timely and reliable forecasts that may help to mitigate seismic risk during earthquake sequences. In this paper, we build the first OEF system for the State of Israel, and we evaluate its reliability. This first version of the OEF system is composed of one forecasting model, which is based on a stochastic clustering… show more
  • 3 Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical

    Randomly repeated measurements on quantum systems: Correlations and topological invariants of the quantum evolution

    Klaus Ziegler, Eli Barkai, David A Kessler
    Abstract
    Randomly repeated measurements during the evolution of a closed quantum system create a sequence of probabilities for the first detection of a certain quantum state. The related discrete monitored evolution for the return of the quantum system to its initial state is investigated. We found that the mean number of measurements until the first detection is an integer… show more
  • 3 Sep 2021 Journal Article Biophysical Reports

    Rapid Ensemble Measurement of Protein Diffusion and Probe Blinking Dynamics in Cells

    Simon Sehayek, Xiyu Yi, Shimon Weiss, Paul W Wiseman
    Abstract
    We present a fluorescence fluctuation image correlation analysis method that can rapidly and simultaneously measure the diffusion coefficient, photoblinking rates, and fraction of diffusing particles of fluorescent molecules in cells. Unlike other image correlation techniques, we demonstrated that our method could be applied irrespective of a non-uniformly distributed… show more
  • 3 Sep 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Top-down identification of keystone species in the microbiome

    Abstract
    Keystone species in ecological communities are native species that play an especially important role in the stability of their ecosystem and can also be potentially used as its main drivers. However, we still lack an effective framework for identifying these species from the available metagenomic data without the notoriously difficult step of reconstructing the detailed… show more
  • 3 Sep 2021 Journal Article Europhysics Letters

    Significant anisotropic neuronal refractory period plasticity

    Abstract
    Refractory periods are an unavoidable feature of excitable elements, resulting in necessary time-lags for re-excitation. Herein, we measure neuronal absolute refractory periods (ARPs) in synaptic blocked neuronal cultures. In so doing, we show that their duration can be significantly extended by dozens of milliseconds using preceding evoked spikes generated by extracellular… show more
  • 2 Sep 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Observing Floquet topological order by symmetry resolution

    Abstract
    Symmetry protected topological order in one dimension leads to protected degeneracies between symmetry blocks of the reduced density matrix. In the presence of periodic driving, topological Floquet phases can be identified in terms of a cycling of these symmetry blocks between different charge quantum numbers. We discuss an example of this phenomenon with an Ising Z2… show more
  • 1 Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research

    Asymmetry in Earthquake Interevent Time Intervals

    Yongwen Zhang, Yosef Ashkenazy, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract

    Here we focus on a basic statistical measure of earthquake catalogs that has not been studied before, the asymmetry of interevent time series (e.g., reflecting the tendency to have more aftershocks than spontaneous earthquakes). We define the asymmetry metric as the ratio between the number of positive interevent time increments minus negative increments and the total

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  • 30 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Measurement induced quantum walks

    A Didi, Eli Barkai
    Abstract
    We investigate a tight binding quantum walk on a graph. Repeated stroboscopic measurements of the position of the particle yield a measured "trajectory", and a combination of classical and quantum mechanical properties for the walk are observed. We explore the effects of the measurements on the spreading of the packet on a one dimensional line, showing that except for… show more
  • 30 Aug 2021 Journal Article Communications Biology

    Connectivity of EEG synchronization networks increases for Parkinson’s disease patients with freezing of gait

    Eitan E Asher, Meir Plotnik, Moritz Günther, Shay Moshel, Orr Levy, Shlomo Havlin, Jan W Kantelhardt, Ronny P Bartsch
    Abstract
    Freezing of gait (FoG), a paroxysmal gait disturbance commonly experienced by patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), is characterized by sudden episodes of inability to generate effective forward stepping. Recent studies have shown an increase in beta frequency of local-field potentials in the basal-ganglia during FoG, however, comprehensive research on the synchronization… show more
  • 27 Aug 2021 Journal Article Journal of Theoretical Biology

    Competition with abundance-dependent fitness and the dynamics of heterogeneous populations in fluctuating environment

    Abstract
    Species competition takes place in a fluctuating environment, so the selective forces on different populations vary through time. In many realistic situations the mean fitness and the amplitude of its temporal variations are abundance-dependent. Here we present a theory of two-species competition with abundance-dependent stochastic fitness variations and solve for the… show more
  • 26 Aug 2021 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Measurements of Polarization Dependencies in Parametric Down-Conversion of X-rays into Ultraviolet Radiation

    Sason Sofer, Or Sefi, A Gareth A Nisbet, Sharon Shwartz
    Abstract
    We present measurements of the polarization dependencies of the x-ray signal photons generated by the effect of parametric down-conversion of x rays into ultraviolet radiation. The results exhibit pronounced discrepancies with the classical model for the nonlinearity but qualitatively agree with a newly developed quantum mechanical theory for the nonlinear interaction… show more
  • 26 Aug 2021 Journal Article Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences

    The Dynamics of Lamin a During the Cell Cycle

    Abstract
    Lamin proteins play an essential role in maintaining the nuclear organization and integrity; and lamin A, in particular, plays a major role in the whole volume of the nuclear interior. Although the nucleus is highly organized, it is rather dynamic, it affects crucial nuclear processes and its organization must change as cells progress through the cell cycle. Although… show more
  • 26 Aug 2021 Journal Article The Astrophysical Journal Letters

    Predicting spectral parameters in the backscattering dominated model for the prompt phase of GRBs

    Mukesh K Vyas, Asaf Pe'er, David Eichler
    Abstract
    We present new results of the backscattering dominated prompt emission model in which the photons generated through pair annihilation at the centre of a gamma ray burst (GRB) are backscattered through Compton scattering by an outflowing stellar cork. %We show that the produced spectral features are capable of producing spectral features that are widely observed in GRBs… show more
  • 26 Aug 2021 Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering

    Reconstruction of Pulse Wave and Respiration from Wrist Accelerometer During Sleep

    Johannes Zschocke, Julian Leube, Martin Glos, Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Thomas Penzel, Ronny P Bartsch, Jan W Kantelhardt
    Abstract
    Objective: Nocturnal recordings of heart rate and respiratory rate usually require several separate sensors or electrodes attached to different body parts -- a disadvantage for at-home screening tests and for large cohort studies. In this paper, we demonstrate that a state-of-the-art accelerometer placed at subjects' wrists can be used to derive reliable signal… show more
  • 26 Aug 2021 Journal Article Elements

    Invasion growth rate and its relevance to persistence: a response to Technical Comment by Ellner et al

    Jayant Pande, Tak Fung, Ryan A Chisholm, Nadav M Shnerb
    Abstract
    Ellner et al. (2020) state that identifying the mechanisms producing positive invasion growth rates (IGR) is useful in characterising species persistence. We agree about the importance of the sign of IGR as a binary indicator of persistence, but question whether its magnitude provides much information once the sign is given.
  • 25 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    From prethermalization to chaos in periodically driven coupled rotors

    Abstract
    Periodically driven (Floquet) systems are said to prethermalize when their energy absorption is very slow for long time. This effect was first discovered in quantum spin models, where the heating rate is exponentially small in the ratio between the driving frequency and the spin bandwidth. Recently, it was shown that prethermalization occurs also in classical systems… show more
  • 24 Aug 2021 Journal Article SciPost Physics

    Statistical Floquet prethermalization of the Bose-Hubbard model

    Abstract
    The manipulation of many-body systems often involves time-dependent forces that cause unwanted heating. One strategy to suppress heating is to use time-periodic (Floquet) forces at large driving frequencies. For quantum spin systems with bounded spectra, it was shown rigorously that the heating rate is exponentially small in the driving frequency. Recently, the exponential… show more
  • 24 Aug 2021 Book Chapter Complex Media and Percolation Theory

    Percolation in complex networks

    Abstract
    Component - The set of nodes reachable from a given node. The nodes of a component are all reachable from each other. Degree - Number of edges emanating from a node. Giant component - The component of a graph with size (number of nodes) of order of the number of nodes in the graph. Graph - A set of nodes (sites) and edges (links or bonds) connecting them. Loop - A path… show more
  • 24 Aug 2021 Journal Article Astronomy and Astrophysics

    SN 2020bqj: a Type Ibn supernova with a long lasting peak plateau

    Erik C Kool, Emir Karamehmetoglu, Jesper Sollerman, Steve Schulze, Ragnhild Lunnan, T M Reynolds, Cristina Barbarino, Eric C Bellm, Kishalay De, Dmitry A Duev, Christoffer Fremling, V Zach Golkhou, Melissa L Graham, David A Green, Assaf Horesh, Stephen Kaye, Y L Kim, Russ R Laher, Frank J Masci, Jakob Nordin, Daniel A Perley, E Sterl Phinney, Michael E Porter, Daniel J Reiley, Hector P Rodriguez, Jan van Roestel, Ben Rusholme, Yashvi Sharma, Itai Sfaradi, Maayane T Soumagnac, Kirsty Taggart, Leonardo Tartaglia, David Williams, Lin Yan
    Abstract
    Context. Type Ibn supernovae (SNe Ibn) are a rare class of stripped envelope supernovae interacting with a helium-rich circumstellar medium (CSM). The majority of the SNe Ibn reported in the literature display a surprising homogeneity in their fast-evolving lightcurves and are typically found in actively starforming spiral galaxies. Aims. We present the discovery and the… show more
  • 23 Aug 2021 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Probing the metallic energy spectrum beyond the Thouless energy scale using the singular value decomposition

    Abstract
    Disordered quantum systems feature an energy scale know as the Thouless energy. For energy ranges below this scale, the properties of the energy spectrum can be described by random matrix theory. Above this scale a different behavior sets in. For a metallic system it has been long ago shown by Altshuler and Shklovskii that the number variance should increase as a power… show more
  • 20 Aug 2021 Journal Article Optica

    Localized modes revealed in Random Lasers

    Bhupesh Kumar, Ran Homri, Priyanka, Santosh K Maurya, Mélanie Lebental, Patrick Sebbah
    Abstract
    In sufficiently strong scattering media, light transport is suppressed and modes are exponentially localized. Anderson-like localized states have long been recognized as potential candidates for high- optical modes for low-threshold, cost-effective random lasers. Operating in this regime remains, however, a challenge since Anderson localization is difficult to achieve… show more
  • 19 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Simulating long-range hopping with periodically-driven superconducting qubits

    Abstract
    Quantum computers are a leading platform for the simulation of many-body physics. This task has been recently facilitated by the possibility to program directly the time-dependent pulses sent to the computer. Here, we use this feature to simulate quantum lattice models with long-range hopping. Our approach is based on an exact mapping between periodically driven quantum… show more
  • 19 Aug 2021 Journal Article New Journal of Physics

    Nuclear reaction network unveils novel reaction patterns based on stellar energies

    Chunheng Jiang, Boleslaw K Szymanski, Jie Lian, Shlomo Havlin, Jianxi Gao
    Abstract
    Despite the advances in discovering new nuclei, modeling microscopic nuclear structure, nuclear reactors, and stellar nucleosynthesis, we still lack a systemic tool, such as a network approach, to understand the structure and dynamics of over 70 thousands reactions compiled in JINA REACLIB. To this end, we develop an analysis framework, under which it is simple to know… show more
  • 16 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Aslamazov Larkin Conductivity in Weyl Semimetals

    Abstract
    The Aslamazov-Larkin conductivity (ALC) in the Weyl semi-metals is calculated both for Type-I and Type II for different dimensionality and magnetic fields. The ALC strongly depends on the tilt parameter of the dispersion relation cone. While the 3D and 2D the Aslamazov -Larkin conductivity slightly depends on tilt parameter in Type-I phase and increases in the Type-II… show more
  • 15 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Discrete sampling of correlated random variables modifies the long-time behavior of their extreme value statistics

    Abstract
    We consider the extreme value statistics of correlated random variables that arise from a Langevin equation. Recently, it was shown that the extreme values of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process follow a different distribution than those originating from its equilibrium measure, composed of independent and identically distributed Gaussian random variables. Here, we first… show more
  • 5 Aug 2021 Journal Article Review of Scientific Instruments

    Setup for pressurizing thin films through the superconductor–insulator transition

    R Cohen, Mark Nikolaevsky, R Salem, Aviad Frydman
    Abstract
    We describe an experimental setup designed for transport measurement of thin disordered superconducting films as a function of pressure up to several GPa. We use a specially designed single screw diamond anvil cell that allows the gradual increase of high pressure at cryogenic temperatures. By depositing amorphous films of disordered superconducting indium oxide directly… show more
  • 4 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Effects of mobility restrictions during COVID19 in Italy

    Alex Smolyak, Giovanni Bonaccorsi, Andrea Flori, Fabio Pammolli, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    To reduce the spread and the effect of the COVID-19 global pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been adopted on multiple occasions by governments. In particular lockdown policies, i.e., generalized mobility restrictions, have been employed to fight the first wave of the pandemic. We analyze data reflecting mobility levels over time in Italy before… show more
  • 2 Aug 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Coherence properties of a spin in a squeezed resonator

    Abstract
    A promising venue for hybrid quantum computation involves the strong coupling between impurity spins and superconducting resonators. One strategy to control and enhance this coupling is to prepare the resonator in a non-classical state, such as a squeezed state. In this work, we theoretically study the effects of these states on the coherence properties of the spin. We… show more
  • 1 Aug 2021 Journal Article The Astrophysical Journal,

    An Observational Signature of Sub-equipartition Magnetic Fields in the Spectra of Black Hole Binaries

    Abstract
    A common assumption used in the study of accretion disks is that the magnetic energy density and the kinetic energy density should be in equipartition. This assumption relies on the faster growth rate of the magnetic field strength against the kinetic energy of the particles in the flow, for decreasing radius, combined with a dissipation mechanism that tends towards… show more
  • 1 Aug 2021 Journal Article Optics Letters

    Transient electromagnetic singularities in random three-dimensional optical fields

    Abstract
    We show that on all generic circular or elliptical paths in a random three-dimensional electromagnetic field, the electric and magnetic field vectors generate a cylinder throughout most of the optical cycle. At some point in the cycle, however, this cylinder transforms into a twisted ribbon with two sequential 180° twists. This ribbon exists for a short time and then… show more
  • Aug 2021 Journal Article The American Naturalist

    Alternative States in Plant Communities Driven by a Life-History Trade-Off and Demographic Stochasticity

    Niv DeMalach, Nadav M Shnerb, Tadashi Fukami
    Abstract
    Life-history trade-offs among species are major drivers of community assembly. Most studies investigate how trade-offs promote deterministic coexistence of species. It remains unclear how trade-offs may instead promote historically contingent exclusion of species, where species dominance is affected by initial abundances, causing alternative community states via priority… show more
  • 30 Jul 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Complexity-stability relationship in empirical microbial ecosystems

    Yogev Yonatan, Guy Amit, Jonathan Friedman, Amir Bashan
    Abstract
    May9s stability theory, which holds that large ecosystems can be stable up to a critical level of complexity, a product of the number of resident species and the intensity of their interactions, has been a central paradigm in theoretical ecology. So far, however, empirically demonstrating this theory in real ecological systems has been a long-standing challenge, with… show more
  • 27 Jul 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Optimization of robustness based on reinforced nodes in a modular network

    Abstract
    Many systems such as critical infrastructure exhibit a modular structure with many links within the modules and few links between them. One approach to increase the robustness of these systems is to reinforce a fraction of the nodes in each module, so that the reinforced nodes provide additional needed sources for themselves as well as for their nearby neighborhood… show more
  • 20 Jul 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Anomalous statistics of laser-cooled atoms in dissipative optical lattices

    Gadi Afek, Nir Davidson, David A Kessler, Eli Barkai
    Abstract
    In this Colloquium we discuss the anomalous kinetics of atoms in dissipative optical lattices, focusing on the ``Sisyphus" laser cooling mechanism. The cooling scheme induces a friction force that decreases to zero for high atomic momentum, which in turn leads to unusual statistical features. We study, using a Fokker-Planck equation describing the semi-classical limit… show more
  • 19 Jul 2021 Journal Article The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

    Anomalous Temperature-Controlled Concave-Convex Switching of Curved Oil-Water Menisci

    Abstract
    While the curvature of the classical liquid surfaces exhibits only a weak temperature dependence, we demonstrate here a reversible temperature-tunable concave–convex shape switching in capillary-contained, surfactant-decorated, oil–water interfaces. The observed switching gives rise to a concave–convex shape transition, which takes place as a function of the width of… show more
  • 14 Jul 2021 Journal Article Journal of Visualized Experiments

    Fabrication of Magnetic Platforms for Micron-Scale Organization of Interconnected Neurons

    Abstract
    The ability to direct neurons into organized neural networks has great implications for regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and bio-interfacing. Many studies have aimed at directing neurons using chemical and topographical cues. However, reports of organizational control on a micron-scale over large areas are scarce. Here, an effective method has been described… show more
  • 14 Jul 2021 Journal Article Scientific Reports

    Unveiling the nature of interaction between semantics and phonology in lexical access based on multilayer networks

    Orr Levy, Yoed N Kenett, Orr Oxenberg, Nichol Castro, Simon De Deyne, Michael S Vitevitch, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    An essential aspect of human communication is the ability to access and retrieve information from ones’ ‘mental lexicon’. This lexical access activates phonological and semantic components of concepts, yet the question whether and how these two components relate to each other remains widely debated. We harness tools from network science to construct a large-scale… show more
  • 13 Jul 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Long chain lipids facilitate insertion of large nanoparticles into membranes of small unilamellar vesicles

    Abstract
    Insertion of hydrophobic nanoparticles into phospholipid bilayers is limited to small particles that can incorporate into the hydrophobic membrane core in between the two lipid leaflets. Incorporation of nanoparticles above this size limit requires development of challenging surface engineering methodologies. In principle, increasing membrane thickness should facilitate… show more
  • 13 Jul 2021 Journal Article Journal of Physics A

    Accurately approximating extreme value statistics

    Abstract
    We consider the extreme value statistics of $N$ independent and identically distributed random variables, which is a classic problem in probability theory. When $N\to\infty$, small fluctuations around the renormalized maximum of the variables are described by the Fisher-Tippett-Gnedenko theorem, which states that the distribution of maxima converges to one out of three… show more
  • 7 Jul 2021 Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics

    Shock wave in series connected Josephson transmission line: Theoretical foundations and effects of resistive elements

    Abstract
    We analytically study shock wave in the Josephson transmission line (JTL) in the presence of ohmic dissipation. When ohmic resistors shunt the Josephson junctions (JJ) or are introduced in series with the ground capacitors the shock is broadened. When ohmic resistors are in series with the JJ, the shock remains sharp, same as it was in the absence of dissipation. In… show more
  • 2 Jul 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Efficient Interaction of Heralded X-Ray Photons with a Beam Splitter

    Edward Strizhevsky, D Borodin, A Schori, S Francoual, Ralf Röhlsberger, Sharon Shwartz
    Abstract
    We report the experimental demonstration of efficient interaction of multi-kilo-electron-volt heralded x-ray photons with a beam splitter. The measured heralded photon rate at the outputs of the beam splitter is about 0.01 counts / s which is comparable to the rate in the absence of the beam splitter. We use this beam splitter together with photon number and photon… show more
  • 30 Jun 2021 Journal Article Experimental Astronomy

    Gamma Ray Burst studies with THESEUS

    G Ghirlanda, Ruben Salvaterra, M Toffano, Samuele Ronchini, C Guidorzi, Gor Oganesyan, S Ascenzi, M G Bernardini, A E Camisasca, Sandro Mereghetti, Lara Nava, M E Ravasio, M Branchesi, Alberto J Castro-Tirado, Lorenzo Amati, Andrew Blain, Enrico Bozzo, P T O'Brien, Diego Götz, Emeric Le Floc'h, J P Osborne, Piero Rosati, Giulia Stratta, Nial R Tanvir, A I Bogomazov, P D'Avanzo, M Hafizi, S Mandhai, A Melandri, Asaf Pe'er, M Topinka, S D Vergani, Silvia Zane
    Abstract
    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful transients in the Universe, over-shining for a few seconds all other $\gamma$-ray sky sources. Their emission is produced within narrowly collimated relativistic jets launched after the core-collapse of massive stars or the merger of compact binaries. THESEUS will open a new window for the use of GRBs as cosmological tools… show more
  • 30 Jun 2021 Reply to Comment Physical Review Letters

    Reply to Comment on" Faceting and flattening of emulsion droplets: a mechanical model" by Haas et al

    Ireth García-Aguilar, Ayelet Atkins, Piermarco Fonda, Eli Sloutskin, Luca Giomi
    Abstract
    In their Comment [arXiv:2102.03842], Haas et al. advance two hypotheses on the nature of the shape transformations observed in surfactant-stabilized emulsion droplets, as the theoretical models that us [Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 038001 (2021)] and others [P. A. Haas et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 088001 (2017), Phys. Rev. Research 1, 023017 (2019)] have introduced to account… show more
  • 29 Jun 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Cascading failures in anisotropic interdependent networks of spatial modular structures

    Dana Vaknin, Amir Bashan, Lidia A Braunstein, Sergey V Buldyrev, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    The structure of real-world multilayer infrastructure systems usually exhibits anisotropy due to constraints of the embedding space. For example, geographical features like mountains, rivers and shores influence the architecture of critical infrastructure networks. Moreover, such spatial networks are often non-homogeneous but rather have a modular structure with dense… show more
  • 29 Jun 2021 Preprint TechRxiv

    Effect of Coil Dimensions on Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles

    Abstract
    We explore the effects of various receiver coil dimensions and configurations on power transfer efficiency and cost of operation, using advanced simulation tools. We demonstrate that the spatial distribution of the magnetic field leads to a non-monotonic dependence of the coupling coefficient on coil size. Thus, an optimal coil size, where the coupling coefficient peaks… show more
  • 27 Jun 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Big jump principle for heavy-tailed random walks with correlated increments

    Abstract
    The big jump principle explains the emergence of extreme events for physical quantities modelled by a sum of independent and identically distributed random variables which are heavy-tailed. Extreme events are large values of the sum and they are solely dominated by the largest summand called the big jump. Recently, the principle was introduced into physical sciences… show more
  • 26 Jun 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Spatial correlations in geographical spreading of COVID-19 in USA

    Troy McMahon, Adrian Chan, Shlomo Havlin, Lazaros K Gallos
    Abstract
    The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has followed complex pathways, largely attributed to the high virus infectivity, human travel patterns, and the implementation of multiple mitigation measures. The resulting geographic patterns describe the evolution of the epidemic and can indicate areas which are at risk of an outbreak. Here, we analyze the spatial correlations… show more
  • 25 Jun 2021 Reply to Comment Physical Review Letters

    García-Aguilar et al. Reply:

    Ireth García-Aguilar, Ayelet Atkins, Piermarco Fonda, Eli Sloutskin, Luca Giomi
    Abstract
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 259802 (2021)
  • 25 Jun 2021 Journal Article Astronomy and Astrophysics

    SN 2018ijp: The explosion of a stripped-envelope star within a dense H-rich shell?

    Leonardo Tartaglia, Jesper Sollerman, Cristina Barbarino, Francesco Taddia, Elena Mason, Marco Berton, Kirsty Taggart, Eric C Bellm, Kishalay De, Sara Frederick, Christoffer Fremling, Avishay Gal-Yam, V Zach Golkhou, Melissa L Graham, Anna Y Q Ho, Tiara Hung, Stephen Kaye, Y L Kim, Russ R Laher, Frank J Masci, Daniel A Perley, M D Porter, Daniel J Reiley, Reed Riddle, Ben Rusholme, Maayane T Soumagnac, Richard Walters
    Abstract
    In this paper, we discuss the outcomes of the follow-up campaign of SN 2018ijp, discovered as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility survey for optical transients. Its first spectrum shows similarities to broad-lined Type Ic supernovae around maximum light, whereas later spectra display strong signatures of interaction between rapidly expanding ejecta and a dense H-rich… show more
  • 23 Jun 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Rapid Ensemble Measurement of Protein Diffusion, Probe Blinking and Photobleaching Dynamics in the Complex Cellular Space

    Simon Sehayek, Xiyu Yi, Shimon Weiss, Paul W Wiseman
    Abstract
    We present a fluorescence fluctuation image correlation analysis method that can rapidly and simultaneously measure the diffusion coefficient, photoblinking rates, and fraction of diffusing particles of fluorescent molecules in cells. Unlike other image correlation techniques, we demonstrated that our method could be applied irrespective of a non-uniformly distributed… show more
  • 22 Jun 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Anomalous Hydrodynamics in a One-Dimensional Electronic Fluid

    I V Protopopov, Rickmoy Samanta, Alexander D Mirlin, Dimitri B Gutman
    Abstract
    We construct multimode viscous hydrodynamics for one-dimensional spinless electrons. Depending on the scale, the fluid has six (shortest lengths), four (intermediate, exponentially broad regime), or three (asymptotically long scales) hydrodynamic modes. Interaction between hydrodynamic modes leads to anomalous scaling of physical observables and waves propagating in… show more
  • 22 Jun 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Quantifying invasibility

    Jayant Pande, Yehonatan Tsubery, Nadav M Shnerb
    Abstract
    Invasibility, the chance of a population to grow from rarity and to establish a large-abundance colony, plays a fundamental role in population genetics, ecology, and evolution. For many decades, the mean growth rate when rare has been employed as an invasion criterion. Recent analyses have shown that this criterion fails as a quantitative metric for invasibility, with… show more
  • 21 Jun 2021 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Robust gapless superconductivity in 4Hb-TaS2

    David Dentelski, Ezra Day-Roberts, Turan Birol, Rafael M Fernandes, Jonathan Ruhman
    Abstract
    The superconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) 4Hb-TaS2 consists of alternating layers of H and T structures, which in their bulk form are metallic and Mott insulating, respectively. Recently, this compound has been proposed as a candidate chiral superconductor, due to an observed enhancement of the muon-spin relaxation at Tc. 4Hb-TaS2 also exhibits a puzzling… show more
  • 17 Jun 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Augmenting the sensing performance of entangled photon pairs through asymmetry

    Abstract
    We analyze theoretically and experimentally cases of asymmetric detection, stimulation and loss within a quantum nonlinear interferometer of entangled pairs. We show that the visibility of the SU(1,1) interference directly discerns between loss on the measured mode (signal), as opposed to the conjugated mode (idler). This asymmetry also affects the phase sensitivity of… show more
  • 14 Jun 2021 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Phonon mechanism explanation of the superconductivity dichotomy between FeSe and FeS monolayers on SrTiO3 and other substrates

    Baruch Rosenstein, Boris Ya Shapiro
    Abstract
    It was observed recently [Shigekawa et al., PNAS 116, 2470 (2019)] that while monolayer iron chalcigenide FeSe on a SrTiO3 (STO) substrate has a very high critical temperature, its chemical and structural twin material FeS/STO has a very low Tc, if any. To explain this, the substrate interfacial phonon model of superconductivity in iron chalcogenides is further developed… show more
  • 13 Jun 2021 Journal Article Nanomaterials

    Screening in Graphene: Response to External Static Electric Field and an Image-Potential Problem

    Viatcheslav M Silkin, Eugene Kogan, Godfrey Gumbs
    Abstract

    We present a detailed first-principles investigation of the response of a free-standing graphene sheet to an external perpendicular static electric field E. The charge density distribution in the vicinity of the graphene monolayer that is caused by E was determined using the pseudopotential density-functional theory approach. Different geometries were considered. The

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  • 10 Jun 2021 Journal Article Applied Physics Letters

    Enhancement of photon detection in superconducting nanowire single photon detector exposed to oscillating magnetic field

    Abstract
    We measured the photon count rate (PCR) and dark count rate (DCR) of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) exposed to either a DC magnetic field (up to 60mT) or to a low-amplitude oscillating field (0.12–0.48mT, up to 50 kHz). In both cases, the results show an increase in the PCR and the DCR as the DC field or the frequency of the AC field increase… show more
  • 7 Jun 2021 Preprint Physical Review A

    Efimov scenario for overlapping narrow Feshbach resonances

    Abstract

    While Efimov physics in ultracold atoms is usually modeled with an isolated Feshbach resonance, many real world resonances appear in close vicinity to each other and are therefore overlapping. Here we derive a realistic model based on the mutual coupling of an open channel and two closed molecular channels while neglecting short-range physics as permitted by the narrow

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  • 7 Jun 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Switching off chaos in two-dimensional optical cavities

    Chenni Xu, Li-Gang Wang, Patrick Sebbah
    Abstract
    Chaos is generally considered a nuisance, inasmuch as it prevents long-term predictions in physical systems. Here, we present an easily accessible approach to undo deterministic chaos in arbitrary two-dimensional optical chaotic billiards, by introducing spatially varying refractive index therein. The landscape of refractive index is obtained by a conformal transformation… show more
  • 3 Jun 2021 Journal Article Nature Communications

    Non-universal current flow near the metal-insulator transition in an oxide interface

    Eylon Persky, Naor Vardi, Ana Mafalda R V Monteiro, Thierry C van Thiel, Hyeok Yoon, Yanwu Xie, Benoît Fauqué, Andrea D Caviglia, Harold Y Hwang, Kamran Behnia, Jonathan Ruhman, Beena Kalisky
    Abstract
    In systems near phase transitions, macroscopic properties often follow algebraic scaling laws, determined by the dimensionality and the underlying symmetries of the system. The emergence of such universal scaling implies that microscopic details are irrelevant. Here, we locally investigate the scaling properties of the metal-insulator transition at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 show more
  • 2 Jun 2021 Conference Paper 52nd Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics

    Efimov Spectrum takes a Turn

    Abstract
    The interaction strength-dependence of a molecule's binding energy discloses crucial information about the system's interaction potential. In general, a bound state features a plethora of bendings, turns and avoided crossings. Contrarily, universal few-body bound states are insensitive to short-range details of the potential, given that their wave function extends far… show more
  • 2 Jun 2021 Conference Paper 52nd Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics

    Observation of coherent oscillations in molecular association from ultra cold thermal gasץ

    Abstract
    A coherently driven 2-level system is well known to exhibit Rabi oscillations as a function of excitation duration. But if we replace one of the levels with a continuum, these oscillations will be smeared out by decoherence. The latter example is realized in molecular association from ultra cold free atoms. Here we use an external magnetic field modulation technique to… show more
  • 2 Jun 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Temperature-induced melting of entropically stabilized solid

    Abstract
    Do solids stabilized by entropy melt with increasing temperature? In order to address this puzzle we use computer simulations to study entropy-driven solidification and melting in binary mixtures of big and small particles interacting via a repulsive potential. At low temperatures and sufficiently large area fractions, big particles form solid clusters stabilized by… show more
  • 1 Jun 2021 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Quantum phases of a weakly disordered Josephson ladder

    Eyal Walach, Efrat Shimshoni
    Abstract

    The interplay of interactions and disorder in low-dimensional superconductors supports the formation of multiple quantum phases as possible instabilities of the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) at a singular quantum critical point. We explore a one-dimensional model which exhibits such a variety of phases in the strongly quantum fluctuations regime. Specifically

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  • 1 Jun 2021 Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Optimal resilience of modular interacting networks

    Gaogao Dong, Fan Wang, Louis M Shekhtman, Michael M Danziger, Jingfang Fan, Ruijin Du, Jianguo Liu, Lixin Tian, H Eugene Stanley, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    Coupling between networks is widely prevalent in real systems and has dramatic effects on their resilience and functional properties. However, current theoretical models tend to assume homogeneous coupling where all the various subcomponents interact with one another, whereas real-world systems tend to have various different coupling patterns. We develop two frameworks… show more
  • 1 Jun 2021 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Pairing in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene: role of phonon and plasmon umklapp

    Cyprian Lewandowski, Debanjan Chowdhury, Jonathan Ruhman
    Abstract
    Identifying the microscopic mechanism for superconductivity in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene (MATBG) is an outstanding open problem. While MATBG exhibits a rich phase-diagram, driven partly by the strong interactions relative to the electronic bandwidth, its single-particle properties are unique and likely play an important role in some of the phenomenological… show more
  • 1 Jun 2021 Journal Article The Astrophysical Journal Supplement

    Bayesian Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Multi-Pulsed GRBs: Variations of Emission Properties amongst Pulses

    Liang Li, Felix Ryde, Asaf Pe'er, Hoi-Fung Yu, Zeynep Acuner
    Abstract
    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly variable and exhibit strong spectral evolution. In particular, the emission properties vary from pulse to pulse in multi-pulsed bursts. Here, we present a time-resolved Bayesian spectral analysis of a compilation of GRB pulses observed by the {\it Fermi}/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The pulses are selected to have at least four… show more
  • 28 May 2021 Journal Article The Astrophysical Journal

    AGNs on the Move: A Search for Off-nuclear AGNs from Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes and Ongoing Galaxy Mergers with the Zwicky Transient Facility

    Charlotte Ward, Suvi Gezari, Sara Frederick, Erica Hammerstein, Peter E Nugent, Sjoert van Velzen, Andrew J Drake, Abigail García Pérez, Immaculate Oyoo, Eric C Bellm, Dmitry A Duev, Matthew J Graham, Mansi M Kasliwal, Stephen Kaye, Ashish Mahabal, Frank J Masci, Ben Rusholme, Maayane T Soumagnac, Lin Yan
    Abstract
    A supermassive black hole (SMBH) ejected from the potential well of its host galaxy via gravitational wave recoil carries important information about the mass ratio and spin alignment of the pre-merger SMBH binary. Such a recoiling SMBH may be detectable as an active galactic nucleus (AGN) broad-line region offset by up to 10 kpc from a disturbed host galaxy. We describe… show more
  • 28 May 2021 Journal Article Symmetry

    Raychaudhuri Equation, Geometrical Flows and Geometrical Entropy

    Lawrence P Horwitz, Vishnu S Namboothiri, Gautham Varma K, Asher Yahalom, Yosef Strauss, Jacob Levitan
    Abstract

    The Raychaudhuri equation is derived by assuming geometric flow in space–time M of n + 1 dimensions. The equation turns into a harmonic oscillator form under suitable transformations. Thereby, a relation between geometrical entropy and mean geodesic deviation is established

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  • 26 May 2021 Journal Article Scientific Reports

    A top-down measure of gene-to-gene coordination for analyzing cell-to-cell variability

    Abstract
    Recent technological advances, such as single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), allow the measurement of gene expression profiles of individual cells. These expression profiles typically exhibit substantial variations even across seemingly homogeneous populations of cells. Two main different sources contribute to this measured variability: actual differences between the… show more
  • 25 May 2021 Journal Article Cell Reports

    PD-L1 Recruits Phospholipase C and Enhances EGFR Signaling: Relevance to Resistance of EGFR-Mutated Lung Tumors to Immunotherapy

    Soma Ghosh, Nishanth Belugali Nataraj, Ashish Noronha, Sushant Patkar, Arunachalam Sekar, Saptaparna Mukherjee, Sabina Winograd Katz, Moshit Lindzen, Diana Drago Garcia, Joseph Green, Galit Eisenberg, Hava Gil-Henn, Arkaprabha Basu, Yan Lender, Shimon Weiss Daniel Neuhauser, Moshe Oren, Michal Lotem, Benjamin Geiger, Eytan Ruppin, Yosef Yarden
    Abstract
    Cancer immunotherapy has focused on inhibitors of checkpoint proteins, such as Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1). Unlike RAS-mutated lung cancers, EGFR mutant tumors have generally low response to immunotherapy. Because treatment outcomes vary by EGFR allele, we assumed that intrinsic and microenvironmental factors are involved. Among all non-immunological signaling… show more
  • 21 May 2021 Journal Article Science Advances

    Receptor compaction and GTPase rearrangement drive SRP-mediated cotranslational protein translocation into the ER

    Jae Ho Lee, Ahmad Jomaa, SangYoon Chung, Yu-Hsien Hwang Fu, Ruilin Qian, Xuemeng Sun, Hao-Hsuan Hsieh, Sowmya Chandrasekar, Xiaotian Bi, Simone Mattei, Daniel Boehringer, Shimon Weiss, Nenad Ban, Shu-ou Shan
    Abstract
    The conserved signal recognition particle (SRP) cotranslationally delivers ~30% of the proteome to the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The molecular mechanism by which eukaryotic SRP transitions from cargo recognition in the cytosol to protein translocation at the ER is not understood. Here, structural, biochemical, and single-molecule studies show that this… show more
  • 20 May 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Paring density waves as the origin of a ring-like RIXS profile in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    Abstract
    The coexistence of a homogeneous d-wave gap and short-ranged pairing density waves (PDW) accounts for the apparent "ring" charge order in all directions of the copper oxide plane, observed by recent RIXS measurements in Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ
  • 19 May 2021 Journal Article European Physical Journal E

    Non-monotonic dynamics of thin film spreading

    Abstract
    The phenomenon of a precursor spreading in front of an advancing droplet is still not fully understood. We recently used a driven lattice-gas model to study the microscopic dynamics of thin film spreading. We found that the scaling exponents describing the dynamics of both the precursor and the bulk layers are not universal, and strongly depend on the parameters describing… show more
  • 19 May 2021 Journal Article Journal of Physics Communications

    Apical oxygen vibrations dominant role in d-wave cuprate superconductivity and its interplay with spin fluctuations

    Baruch Rosenstein, Boris Ya Shapiro
    Abstract
    Microscopic theory of a high Tc cuprate Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x based on main pairing channel of electrons in CuO planes due to 40mev lateral vibrations of the apical oxygen atoms in adjacent the SrO ionic insulator layer is proposed. The separation between the vibrating charged atoms and the 2D electron gas creates the forward scattering peak leading in turn to the d -wave pairing… show more
  • 17 May 2021 Conference Paper 8th International Symposium on Sensor Science

    Two Orders of Magnitude Improvement in the Detection Limit of Droplet-Based Micro-Magnetofluidics with Planar Hall Effect Sensors

    Julian Schütt, Rico Illing, Oleksii M Volkov, Tobias Kosub, Pablo Nicolás Granell, Hariharan Nhalil, Jürgen Fassbender, Lior Klein, Asaf Grosz, Denys Makarov
    Abstract
    The detection, manipulation, and tracking of magnetic nanoparticles is of major importance in the fields of biology, biotechnology, and biomedical applications as labels as well as in drug delivery, (bio-)detection, and tissue engineering. In this regard, the trend goes towards improvements of existing state-of-the-art methodologies in the spirit of timesaving, high-throughput… show more
  • 15 May 2021 Journal Article Science Bulletin

    Single-pixel imaging with high-energy electromagnetic radiation and particles

    Abstract
    High-photon-energy electromagnetic radiations in the forms of X-rays and c-rays and particles such as neutrons and electrons are routinely used for various imaging and diffraction modalities with applications ranging from materials science and chemistry to biomedical imaging and industrial imaging. They provide important unique information on the structure and the… show more
  • 15 May 2021 Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics

    Shock Wave in Series Connected Josephson Transmission Line

    Abstract
    We analytically study shock wave in the Josephson transmission line (JTL) in the presence of ohmic dissipation. When ohmic resistors shunt the Josephson junctions (JJ) or are introduced in series with the capacitors the shock is broadened. When ohmic resistors are in series with the JJ, the shock remains sharp, same as it was in the absence of dissipation. In all the… show more
  • 14 May 2021 Conference Paper CLEO: QELS Fundamental Science 2021

    Ultrafast non-destructive measurement of the quantum state of light with free electrons

    Abstract
    We demonstrate that free electrons can be used as ultrafast non-destructive photon detectors. Particularly, we show how one can measure photon statistics, temporal coherence, and implement full quantum state tomography using free electrons.
  • 11 May 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Playing quantum nonlocal games with six noisy qubits on the cloud

    Abstract
    Nonlocal games are extensions of Bell inequalities, aimed at demonstrating quantum advantage. These games are well suited for noisy quantum computers because they only require the preparation of a shallow circuit, followed by the measurement of non-commuting observable. Here, we consider the minimal implementation of the nonlocal game proposed in Science 362, 308 (2018)… show more
  • 11 May 2021 Journal Article Entropy

    Uncertainty Relation between Detection Probability and Energy Fluctuations

    Abstract

    A classical random walker starting on a node of a finite graph will always reach any other node since the search is ergodic, namely it fully explores space, hence the arrival probability is unity. For quantum walks, destructive interference may induce effectively non-ergodic features in such search processes. Under repeated projective local measurements, made on a

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  • 11 May 2021 Journal Article European Physical Journal D

    Roadmap on dynamics of molecules and clusters in the gas phase

    Henning Zettergren, Alicja Domaracka, Thomas Schlathölter, Paola Bolognesi, Sergio Díaz-Tendero, Marta Łabuda, Sanja Tosic, Sylvain Maclot, Per Johnsson, Amanda Steber, Denis Tikhonov, Mattea Carmen Castrovilli, Lorenzo Avaldi, Sadia Bari, Aleksandar R Milosavljević, Alicia Palacios, Shirin Faraji, Dariusz G Piekarski, Patrick Rousseau, Daniela Ascenzi, Claire Romanzin, Ewa Erdmann, Manuel Alcamí, Janina Kopyra, Paulo Limão-Vieira, Jaroslav Kočišek, Juraj Fedor, Simon Albertini, Michael Gatchell, Henrik Cederquist, Henning T Schmidt, Elisabeth Gruber, Lars H Andersen, Oded Heber, Yoni Toker, Klavs Hansen, Jennifer A Noble, Christophe Jouvet, Christina Kjær, Steen Brøndsted Nielsen, Eduardo Carrascosa, James Bull, Alessandra Candian, Annemieke Petrignani
    Abstract
    Abstract This roadmap article highlights recent advances, challenges and future prospects in studies of the dynamics of molecules and clusters in the gas phase. It comprises nineteen contributions by scientists with leading expertise in complementary experimental and theoretical techniques to probe the dynamics on timescales spanning twenty order of magnitudes, from… show more
  • 10 May 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Stochasticity-induced stabilization weakens in diverse communities

    Abstract
    Environmental stochasticity and the temporal variations of demographic rates associated with it are ubiquitous in nature. The ability of these fluctuations to stabilize a coexistence state of competing populations (sometimes known as the storage effect) is a counterintuitive feature that has aroused much interest. Here we consider the performance of environmental… show more
  • 9 May 2021 Conference Paper CLEO: QELS Fundamental Science 2021

    Efficient Interaction of X-ray Single Photons with a Beam Splitter

    Edward Strizhevsky, D Borodin, A Schori, S Francoual, Ralf Röhlsberger, Sharon Shwartz
    Abstract
    We demonstrate efficient interaction of hard x-ray single photons with a beam splitter for the first time and use it to show the nonclassical behavior of x-ray heralded photons.
  • 9 May 2021 Conference Paper CLEO: QELS Fundamental Science 2021

    High-resolution x-ray fluorescence imaging using structured illumination

    Abstract
    We report a proof of principle experiment demonstrating the use of structured illumination and coincidence for x-ray fluorescence imaging at very high spatial resolution and short measurement time with a conventional x-ray tube.
  • 6 May 2021 Book Chapter Physics of Biological Oscillators

    Sleep-Related Modulations of Heart Rate Variability, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling

    Thomas Penzel, Yaopeng Ma, Jan F Kraemer, Niels Wessel, Martin Glos, Ingo Fietze, Ronny P Bartsch
    Abstract
    Background: Integrated physiological systems following regular rhythms are a prime example of biological oscillators. Such systems include the heart with an oscillatory activity on a time scale of 1-second and the circadian pacemaker leading to a close to 24 h sleep-wake rhythm. Other prominent physiological oscillations each characterized by specific time scales are… show more
  • 4 May 2021 Journal Article The Astrophysical Journal

    A Large Fraction of Hydrogen-rich Supernova Progenitors Experience Elevated Mass Loss Shortly Prior to Explosion

    Rachel Bruch, Avishay Gal-Yam, Steve Schulze, Ofer Yaron, Yi Yang, Maayane T Soumagnac, Mickael Rigault, Nora L Strotjohann, Eran O Ofek, Jesper Sollerman, Frank J Masci, Cristina Barbarino, Anna Y Q Ho, Christoffer Fremling, Daniel A Perley, Jakob Nordin, S Bradley Cenko, Scott M Adams, Igor Adreoni, Eric C Bellm, Nadia Blagorodnova, Mattia Bulla, Kevin B Burdge, Kishalay De, Suhail Dhawan, Andrew J Drake, Dmitry A Duev, Alison Dugas, Matthew J Graham, Melissa L Graham, I Irani, Jacob E Jencson, Emir Karamehmetoglu, Mansi M Kasliwal, Y L Kim, Shrinivas R Kulkarni, Thomas Kupfer, Jingyi Liang, Ashish Mahabal, Adam A Miller, Thomas A Prince, Reed Riddle, Yashvi Sharma, R C Smith, Francesco Taddia, Kirsty Taggart, Richard Walters, Lin Yan
    Abstract
    Spectroscopic detection of narrow emission lines traces the presence of circumstellar mass distributions around massive stars exploding as core-collapse supernovae. Transient emission lines disappearing shortly after the supernova explosion suggest that the spatial extent of such material is compact, and hence imply an increased mass loss shortly prior to explosion… show more
  • 27 Apr 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Concurrence Percolation in Quantum Networks

    Xiangyi Meng, Jianxi Gao, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    Establishing long-distance quantum entanglement, i.e., entanglement transmission, in quantum networks (QN) is a key and timely challenge for developing efficient quantum communication. Traditional comprehension based on classical percolation assumes a necessary condition for successful entanglement transmission between any two infinitely distant nodes: they must be… show more
  • 23 Apr 2021 Journal Article International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Weak Electromagnetic Fields Accelerate Fusion of Myoblasts

    Dana Adler Portal, Zehavit Shapira, Shimon Weiss, Asher Shainberg, Abram Katz
    Abstract
    Weak electromagnetic fields (WEF) alter Ca2+ handling in skeletal muscle myotubes. Owing to the involvement of Ca2+ in muscle development, we investigated whether WEF affects fusion of myoblasts in culture. Rat primary myoblast cultures were exposed to WEF (1.75 µT, 16 Hz) for up to six days. Under control conditions, cell fusion and creatine kinase (CK) activity increased… show more
  • 22 Apr 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Optical Probing of Local Membrane Potential with Fluorescent Polystyrene Beads

    Abstract
    Studying the electrical activity in single cells and in local circuits of excitable cells, like neurons, requires an easy to use and high throughput methodology that enables the measurement of membrane potential. Studying the electrical properties in particular sub-compartments of neurons, or in a specific type of neurons produces additional complexity. An optical… show more
  • 21 Apr 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Species coexistence and temporal environmental fluctuations: a quantitative comparison between stochastic and seasonal variations

    Immanuel Meyer, Bnaya Steinmetz, Nadav M Shnerb
    Abstract
    Temporal environmental variations may promote diversity in communities of competing populations. Here we compare the effect of environmental stochasticity with the effect of periodic (e.g., seasonal) cycles, using analytic solutions and individual-based Monte-Carlo simulations. Even when stochasticity facilitates coexistence it still allows for rare sequences of bad… show more
  • 13 Apr 2021 Journal Article Journal of Optics

    A tribute to Marat Soskin

    Michael V Berry, S Soskin, Etienne Brasselet, Isaac Freund, Boris A Malomed, Valerii P Aksenov, Carmelo Rosales-Guzmán, Constantin N Alexeyev, A N Alexeyev, Maxim A Yavorsky, L Tryfonyuk, Alexander G Ushenko, David L Andrews, Lluis Torner, Anton S Desyatnikov, Yoko Miyamoto, Oleg V Angelsky, Peter Banzer, N N Rosanov, F S Roux, Vladimir Yu Venediktov, R O Vlokh, Alexander V Volyar, Yuriy A Egorov, A Rubass, Greg Gbur, Miguel A Alonso, Ebrahim Karimi, Mark R Dennis
    Abstract
    Knight of science / Stanislav Soskin My father was a great enthusiast of science. He liked to metaphorically state during our philosophical discussions: ‘My god is science.’ Though I disagree with such a position, I appreciate his commitment to science (particularly to physics), its ideals and ethics. During my school time, his enthusiasm played a major role in the… show more
  • 13 Apr 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Driving quantum systems with repeated conditional measurements

    Abstract
    We investigate the effect of conditional null measurements on a quantum system and find a rich variety of behaviors. Specifically, quantum dynamics with a time independent $H$ in a finite dimensional Hilbert space are considered with repeated strong null measurements of a specified state. We discuss four generic behaviors that emerge in these monitored systems. The… show more
  • 9 Apr 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Can Nonlinear Parametric Oscillators Solve Random Ising Models?

    Abstract

    We study large networks of parametric oscillators as heuristic solvers of random Ising models. In these networks, known as coherent Ising machines, the model to be solved is encoded in the coupling between the oscillators, and a solution is offered by the steady state of the network. This approach relies on the assumption that mode competition steers the network to the

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  • 8 Apr 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Transitions in the ergodicity of subrecoil-laser-cooled gases

    Eli Barkai, Günter Radons, Takuma Akimoto
    Abstract
    With subrecoil-laser-cooled atoms one may reach nano-Kelvin temperatures while the ergodic properties of these systems do not follow usual statistical laws. Instead, due to an ingenious trapping mechanism in momentum space, power-law-distributed sojourn times are found for the cooled particles. Here, we show how this gives rise to a statistical-mechanical framework… show more
  • 8 Apr 2021 Journal Article Advanced Functional Materials

    Pulse Dynamics of Flexural Waves in Transformed Plates

    Kun Tang, Chenni Xu, Sébastien Guenneau, Patrick Sebbah
    Abstract
    Coordinate-transformation-inspired optical devices have been mostly examined in the continuous-wave regime: the performance of an invisibility cloak, which has been demonstrated for monochromatic excitation, %would inevitably is likely to deteriorate for short pulses. Here we investigate pulse dynamics of flexural waves propagating in transformed plates. We propose a… show more
  • 7 Apr 2021 Journal Article European Journal of Physics

    Floating of a long square bar: experiment vs theory

    Abstract
    We carried out an experimental study of the floating of a square bar in water and found its equilibrium orientation (tilting angle) as a function of relative density ρbar/ρwater. Though the theoretical solution of this problem was given in 1963 by Reid, we provided our solution that is more transparent and less cumbersome, enabling an introductory level physics student… show more
  • 5 Apr 2021 Journal Article Nature Human Behaviour

    Fresh teams are associated with original and multidisciplinary research Associated Content

    An Zeng, Ying Fan, Zengru Di, Yougui Wang, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    Teamwork is one of the most prominent features in modern science. It is now well understood that team size is an important factor that affects the creativity of the team. However, the crucial question of how the character of research studies is related to the freshness of a team remains unclear. Here, we quantify the team freshness according to the absence of prior… show more
  • 1 Apr 2021 Journal Article Physica A-statistical Mechanics and Its Applications

    Interdependent transport via percolation backbones in spatial networks

    Bnaya Gross, Ivan Bonamassa, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    The functionality of nodes in a network is often described by the structural feature of belonging to the giant component. However, when dealing with problems like transport, a more appropriate functionality criterion is for a node to belong to the network’s backbone, where the flow of information and of other physical quantities (such as current) occurs. Here we study… show more
  • 1 Apr 2021 Journal Article Optics Letters

    Diffractive saturable loss mechanism in Kerr-lens mode-locked lasers: direct observation and simulation

    Abstract
    Passive mode-locking relies critically on a saturable loss mechanism to form ultrashort pulses. However, in Kerr-lens mode-locking (KLM), no actual absorption takes place, but rather losses appear due to diffraction, and actual light must escape the cavity. The Kerr-lens effect works to generate through diffraction an effective instantaneous saturable absorber that… show more
  • Apr 2021 Journal Article New Journal of Physics

    Improved earthquake aftershocks forecasting model based on long-term memory

    Yongwen Zhang, Dong Zhou, Jingfang Fan, Warner Marzocchi, Yosef Ashkenazy, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    A prominent feature of earthquakes is their empirical laws, including memory (clustering) in time and space. Several earthquake forecasting models, such as the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model, were developed based on these empirical laws. Yet, a recent study [1] showed that the ETAS model fails to reproduce the significant long-term memory characteristics… show more
  • 31 Mar 2021 Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics

    Measurements of nanomagnetic bead relaxation dynamics using planar Hall effect magnetometer

    Abstract
    We study the magnetization dynamics of nanomagnetic beads with a diameter ranging from 80 to 250 nm in frequency and time domains using a high-resolution elliptical planar Hall effect (EPHE) sensor integrated with a fluidic channel. We find that the dynamics are well described with Cole–Cole and exponential decay models for frequency and time domains, respectively. We… show more
  • 30 Mar 2021 Journal Article PRX Quantum

    Measurement and Entanglement Phase Transitions in All-To-All Quantum Circuits, on Quantum Trees, and in Landau-Ginsburg Theory

    Adam Nahum, Sthitadhi Roy, Brian Skinner, Jonathan Ruhman
    Abstract
    A quantum many-body system whose dynamics includes local measurements at a nonzero rate can be in distinct dynamical phases, with differing entanglement properties. We introduce theoretical approaches to measurement-induced phase transitions (MPTs) and also to entanglement transitions in random tensor networks. Many of our results are for “all-to-all” quantum circuits… show more
  • 25 Mar 2021 Journal Article New Journal of Physics

    Optimal COVID-19 infection spread under low temperature, dry air, and low UV radiation

    Eitan E Asher, Yosef Ashkenazy, Shlomo Havlin, Alon Sela
    Abstract
    The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is currently spreading rapidly throughout the world, causing many deaths and severe economic damage. It is believed that hot and humid conditions do not favor the novel coronavirus, yet this is still under debate due to many uncertainties associated with the COVID-19 data. Here we propose surrogate data… show more
  • 19 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Top-down analysis of gene-regulatory networks using global coordination method

    Abstract
    Cellular activity is governed by an underlying gene regulatory network. However, due to the large complexity of the regulatory network, inferring them is extremely challenging. A novel computational measure was recently developed to cut across the network of interactions among genes and consider their transcriptional interrelationships in a top-down manner. The new… show more
  • 19 Mar 2021 Preprint Research Square

    Aging power spectrum of membrane protein transport and other subordinated random walks

    Zachary Fox, Eli Barkai, Diego Krapf
    Abstract
    Single-particle tracking offers detailed information about the motion of molecules in complex environments such as those encountered in live cells, but the interpretation of experimental data is challenging. One of the most powerful tools in the characterization of random processes is the power spectral density. However, because anomalous diffusion processes in complex… show more
  • 18 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Characterizations of prethermal states in periodically driven many-body systems with unbounded chaotic diffusion

    Abstract
    We introduce well-defined characterizations of prethermal states in realistic periodically driven many-body systems with unbounded chaotic diffusion of the kinetic energy. These systems, interacting arrays of periodically kicked rotors, are paradigmatic models of many-body chaos theory. We show that the prethermal states in these systems are well described by a generalized… show more
  • 18 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Imaging filamentary current flow near the metal-insulator transition in an oxide interface

    Eylon Persky, Naor Vardi, Ana Mafalda R V Monteiro, Thierry C van Thiel, Hyeok Yoon, Yanwu Xie, Benoît Fauqué, Andrea D Caviglia, Harold Y Hwang, Kamran Behnia, Beena Kalisky
    Abstract
    In systems near phase transitions, macroscopic properties often follow algebraic scaling laws, determined by the dimensionality and symmetries of the system. The emergence of such universal scaling implies that microscopic details are irrelevant. In my talk, I will discuss the scaling properties of the metal-insulator transition at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Using… show more
  • 18 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Age-related loss of gene-to-gene transcriptional coordination among single cells

    Abstract
    A long-standing model holds that stochastic aberrations of transcriptional regulation play a key role in the process of ageing. While transcriptional dysregulation is observed in many cell types in the form of increased cell-to-cell variability, its generality to all cell types remains doubted. Here, we propose a new approach for analysing transcriptional regulation in… show more
  • 18 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Super-Poissonian behavior of the energy specrum in the non-ergodic extended regime

    Abstract
    Non-ergodic extended phase between the ergodic extended metallic phase and the localized phase has drawn much recent interest in different fields such as Such a the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model in high-energy physics and quantum gravity, to the interacting many-body localization in condensed matter physics and quantum computing. This phase is characterized by fractal behavior… show more
  • 18 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Complex two-mode quadratures - a generalized formalism for continuous-variable quantum optics

    Abstract
    Quantum squeezing, a major resource of quantum information processing and quantum metrology, is best analyzed in terms of the field quadratures – the quantum optical analogs of position and momentum, which form the continuous-variable formalism of quantum light. Degenerate squeezing admits a very neat and simple description in terms of the single-mode quadrature operators… show more
  • 18 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Statistical Floquet prethermalization of the Bose-Hubbard model

    Abstract
    The manipulation of many-body systems often involves time-dependent forces that cause unwanted heating. One strategy to suppress heating is to use time-periodic (Floquet) forces at large frequencies. In particular, for quantum spin systems with bounded spectra, it was shown rigorously that the heating rate is exponentially small in the driving frequency. Recently, the… show more
  • 17 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Top-down analysis of the complexity of environmental and human-associated microbial ecosystems

    Yogev Yonatan, Guy Amit, Amir Bashan
    Abstract
    According to May's half-century-old theory, ecological systems can be stable up to a critical level of complexity, which is a product of the number of resident species and their interactions. So far, however, this theory has not been empirically demonstrated for large microbial ecosystems which typically exhibit long-term stability, mainly due to the difficulty of… show more
  • 16 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Identification of Symmetry-Protected Topological States on Noisy Quantum Computers

    Daniel Azses, Rafael Haenel, Yehuda Naveh, Robert Raussendorf, Emanuele G Dalla Torre
    Abstract
    Identifying topological properties is a major challenge because, by definition, topological states do not have a local order parameter. While a generic solution to this challenge is not available yet, a broad class of topological states, namely, symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states, can be identified by distinctive degeneracies in their entanglement spectrum… show more
  • 16 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Solving random Ising graphs with nonlinear parametric oscillators

    Abstract
    Large networks of parametric oscillators hold the promise to solve a paradigmatic NP-hard problem, namely finding the ground state of frustrated Ising models. Recent theoretical studies and experiments based on linear stability analysis showed that coherent Ising machines necessarily encounters two major obstacles: The system can either be trapped in oscillatory persistent… show more
  • 15 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Realizing the Kondo lattice Model in Electron Doped Heterogeneous TMD Bilayers

    Amir Dalal, Rafael M Fernandes, Jonathan Ruhman
    Abstract
    Moire potentials in vdW bilayers have been recently extended from graphene to a variety of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). In particular, correlated insulating states were observed in heterogeneous TMD bilayers. On the hole doped side the flat mini-bands are isolated from one another due to large spin-orbit splittings. However, on the electron doped side these… show more
  • 15 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Bulletin of the American Physical Society

    Ferroelectric Exchange Bias Affects Interfacial Electronic States

    Gal Tuvia, Yiftach Frenkel, Prasanna Rout, Itai Silber, Beena Kalisky, Yoram Dagan
    Abstract
    In polar oxide interfaces phenomena such as superconductivity, magnetism, 1D conductivity, and quantum Hall states can emerge at the polar discontinuity. Combining controllable ferroelectricity at such interfaces can affect the superconducting properties and sheds light on the mutual effects between the polar oxide and the ferroelectric oxide. Here, the interface between… show more
  • 15 Mar 2021 Journal Article Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment

    Poor man's scaling: $XYZ$ Coqblin--Schrieffer model revisited

    Eugene Kogan, Zheng Shi
    Abstract
    We derive the third-order poor man's scaling equation for a generic Hamiltonian describing a quantum impurity embedded into an itinerant electron gas. We show that the $XYZ$ Coqblin--Schrieffer model introduced by one of us earlier is algebraically renormalizable in the sense that the form of the Hamiltonian is preserved along the scaling trajectory, write down the… show more
  • 11 Mar 2021 Patent

    Hybrid superconducting magnetic device

    Abstract
    A hybrid superconductive device for stabilizing an electric grid comprises (a) a magnetic core arrangement at least partially carrying an AC winding the AC winding connectable to an AC circuit for a current to be limited in the event of a fault; (b) at least one superconductive coil configured for storing electromagnetic energy; the superconductive coil magnetically… show more
  • 10 Mar 2021 Journal Article Europhysics Letters

    Quasi-two-dimensional electron gas at the oxide interfaces for topological quantum physics

    A Barthélémy, Nicolas Bergeal, Manuel Bibes, Andrea D Caviglia, Roberta Citro, Mario Cuoco, Alexei Kalaboukhov, Beena Kalisky, A Perroni, Jesus Santamaria, Daniela Stornaiuolo, Marco Salluzzo
    Abstract
    The development of" fault-tolerant" quantum computers, unaffected by noise and decoherence, is one of the fundamental challenges in quantum technology. One of the approaches currently followed is the realization of" topologically protected" qubits which make use of quantum systems characterized by a degenerate ground state of composite particles, known as" non-Abelian… show more
  • 10 Mar 2021 Preprint arXiv

    The Orbitally Selective Mott Phase in Electron Doped Twisted TMDs: A Possible Realization of the Kondo Lattice Model

    Abstract
    Moir\'e super-potentials in two-dimensional materials allow unprecedented control of the ratio between kinetic and interaction energy. By this, they pave the way to study a wide variety of strongly correlated physics under a new light. In particular, the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are promising candidate "quantum simulators" of the Hubbard model on a… show more
  • 9 Mar 2021 Journal Article Journal of Plasma Physics

    Bridging the gap between collisional and collisionless shock waves

    Antoine Bret, Asaf Pe'er
    Abstract
    While the front of a fluid shock is a few mean-free-paths thick, the front of a collisionless shock can be orders of magnitude thinner. By bridging between a collisional and a collisionless formalism, we assess the transition between these two regimes. We consider non-relativistic, non-magnetized, planar shocks in electron–ion plasmas. In addition, our treatment of the… show more
  • 5 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Optical and Quantum Sensing and Precision Metrology

    Quantum radar: can it really work with high losses?

    Abstract
    The “quantum Radar” seeks to harness quantum entanglement and squeezing to improve the detection of faint targets beyond the best possible classical sensor. The major challenge of the quantum Radar is the very large optical loss of the target beam, which induces vacuum fluctuations and hampers the quantum correlation. In addition, the faint target reflection requires… show more
  • 5 Mar 2021 Conference Paper Optical and Quantum Sensing and Precision Metrology

    Quantum x-ray imaging for medical and industrial applications

    Brian David Yanoff, Sharon Shwartz, Eliahu Cohen, Vasil Bogdan Neculaes, Uwe Wiedmann, Jonathan Owens, Loucas Tsakalakos
    Abstract
    We provide an introductory overview of medical and industrial x-ray imaging applications and requirements for readers whose primary background is in quantum imaging. We discuss some opportunities for quantum X-ray imaging and related techniques such as ghost imaging to provide meaningful benefits in imaging and explain some of the key challenges that remain before… show more
  • 4 Mar 2021 Journal Article Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics

    Comment on "Bi-layering at ionic liquid surfaces: a sum - frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy - and molecular dynamics simulation-based study"

    Moshe Deutsch, Olaf M Magnussen, Julia Haddad, Diego Pontoni, Bridget M Murphy, Benjamin M Ocko
    Abstract
    This Comment raises several questions concerning the surface structure concluded in the paper referenced in the title. Specifically, that paper ignores previous experiments and simulations which demonstrate for the same ionic liquids depth-decaying, multilayered surface-normal density profiles rather than the claimed molecular mono- or bi-layers. We demonstrate that… show more
  • 1 Mar 2021 Journal Article Optica

    Hypercubic cluster states in the phase-modulated quantum optical frequency comb

    Xuan Zhu, Chun-Hung Chang, Carlos Gonzalez-Arciniegas, Avi Pe'er, Jacob Higgins, Olivier Pfister
    Abstract
    We propose and fully analyze the simplest technique to date (to our knowledge) for generating light-based universal quantum computing resources, namely, 2D, 3D, and -hypercubic cluster states in general. The technique uses two standard optical components: first, a single optical parametric oscillator pumped below threshold by a monochromatic field, which generates… show more
  • Mar 2021 Journal Article Toxicology in Vitro

    Co-culture hydrogel micro-chamber array-based plate for anti-tumor drug development at single-element resolution

    Abstract
    In response to the need for reliable cellular models that reflect complex tumor microenvironmental properties, and enable more precise testing of anti-cancer therapeutics effects on humans, a co-culture platform for in-vitro model that enhances the physiology of breast cancer (BC) microenvironment is presented. A six well imaging plate wherein each macro-well contains… show more
  • Mar 2021 Journal Article Physica Status Solidi B - basic Solid State Physics

    Symmetry of Electron Bands in Graphene: (Nearly) Free Electron Versus Tight-Binding

    Eugene Kogan, Viatcheslav M Silkin
    Abstract
    We present the symmetry labelling of all electron bands in graphene obtained by combining numerical band calculations and analytical analysis based on group theory. The latter was performed both in the framework of the (nearly) free electron model, or in the framework of the tight-binding model. The predictions about relative positions of the bands which can be made on… show more
  • 25 Feb 2021 Journal Article Physical Review A

    First-detection time of a quantum state under random probing

    David A Kessler, Eli Barkai, Klaus Ziegler
    Abstract
    We solve for the statistics of the first detection of a quantum system in a particular desired state, when the system is subject to a projective measurement at independent identically distributed random time intervals. We present formulas for the probability of detection in the nth attempt. We calculate as well the mean and mean square, both of the number of the first… show more
  • 22 Feb 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Pairwise Mode Locking in Dynamically Coupled Parametric Oscillators

    Abstract
    Mode locking in lasers is a collective effect, where due to a weak coupling a large number of frequency modes lock their phases to oscillate in unison, forming an ultrashort pulse in time. We demonstrate an analogous collective effect in coupled parametric oscillators, which we term “pairwise mode locking,” where many pairs of modes with twin frequencies (symmetric… show more
  • 19 Feb 2021 Journal Article eLife

    LAP2alpha maintains a mobile and low assembly state of A-type lamins in the nuclear interior

    Nana Naetar, Konstantina Georgiou, Christian Knapp, Irena Bronshtein, Elisabeth Zier, Petra Fichtinger, Thomas Dechat, Yuval Garini, Roland Foisner
    Abstract
    Lamins form stable filaments at the nuclear periphery in metazoans. Unlike B-type lamins, lamins A and C localize also in the nuclear interior, where they interact with lamin-associated polypeptide 2 alpha (LAP2α). Using antibody labeling, we previously observed a depletion of nucleoplasmic A-type lamins in mouse cells lacking LAP2α. Here, we show that loss of LAP2α… show more
  • 18 Feb 2021 Journal Article Physics Reports

    Statistical physics approaches to the complex Earth system

    Jingfang Fan, Jun Meng, Josef Ludescher, Xiaosong Chen, Yosef Ashkenazy, Jürgen Kurths, Shlomo Havlin, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber
    Abstract

    Global warming, extreme climate events, earthquakes and their accompanying socioeconomic disasters pose significant risks to humanity. Yet due to the nonlinear feedbacks, multiple interactions and complex structures of the Earth system, the understanding and, in particular, the prediction of such disruptive events represent formidable challenges to both scientific and

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  • 17 Feb 2021 Journal Article Entropy

    Cusp of Non-Gaussian Density of Particles for a Diffusing Diffusivity Model

    Abstract

    We study a two state “jumping diffusivity” model for a Brownian process alternating between two different diffusion constants, D + > D , with random waiting times in both states whose distribution

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  • 17 Feb 2021 Preprint Research Square

    A Cosmological Fireball with Thirty-Percent Gamma-Ray Radiative Efficiency

    Liang Li, Xiang-Yu Wang, Felix Ryde, Asaf Pe'er, Bing Zhang, Sylvain Guiriec, Alberto J Castro-Tirado, David Alexander Kann, Magnus Axelsson, Kim L Page, Peter Veres, Narayana Perumpalli Bhat
    Abstract
    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful explosions in the universe. The composition of the jets is, however, subject to debate\cite{Peer2015,Zhang2018}. Whereas the traditional model invokes a relativistic matter-dominated fireball with a bright photosphere emission component\cite{Meszaros2000}, the lack of the detection of such a component in some GRBs\cite{Abdo2009}… show more
  • 16 Feb 2021 Patent

    Planar Hall effect sensors with shape-induced effective single domain behavior

    Lior Klein, Mordechai Schultz, Vladislav Mor, Asaf Grosz, Shai Amrusi, Igor Faivinov
    Abstract
    A planar Hall effect (PHE) sensor for measuring at an external magnetic field includes a plurality of elongated magnetic regions. Each magnetic region includes a ferromagnetic material that is magnetized along a longitudinal axis. The magnetic regions cross one another at an overlap region that is characterized by a plurality of easy magnetic axes. At least two pairs… show more
  • 15 Feb 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Chemical element mapping by x-ray ghost fluorescence

    Abstract
    Chemical element mapping is an imaging tool that provides essential information on composite materials and it is crucial for a broad range of fields ranging from fundamental science to numerous applications. Methods that exploit x-ray fluorescence are very advantageous and are widely used, but require focusing of the input beam and raster scanning of the sample. Thus… show more
  • 8 Feb 2021 Journal Article Scientific Reports

    Systemic stress test model for shared portfolio networks Associated Content

    Irena Vodenska, Nima Dehmamy, Alexander P Becker, Sergey V Buldyrev, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    We propose a dynamic model for systemic risk using a bipartite network of banks and assets in which the weight of links and node attributes vary over time. Using market data and bank asset holdings, we are able to estimate a single parameter as an indicator of the stability of the financial system. We apply the model to the European sovereign debt crisis and observe that… show more
  • 8 Feb 2021 Journal Article The Astrophysical Journal

    A backscattering dominated prompt emission model for the prompt phase of Gamma ray bursts

    Mukesh K Vyas, Asaf Pe'er, David Eichler
    Abstract
    As gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet drills its way through the collapsing star, it traps a baryonic cork ahead of it. Here we explore a prompt emission model for GRBs in which the jet does not cross the cork, but rather photons that are emitted deep in the flow largely by pair annihilation are scattered inside the expanding cork and escape largely from the back end of it as… show more
  • 3 Feb 2021 Journal Article The Astrophysical Journal

    Bright, months-long stellar outbursts announce the explosion of interaction-powered supernovae

    Nora L Strotjohann, Eran O Ofek, Avishay Gal-Yam, Rachel Bruch, Steve Schulze, Nir J Shaviv, Jesper Sollerman, Alexei V Filippenko, Ofer Yaron, Christoffer Fremling, Jakob Nordin, Erik C Kool, Dan A Perley, Anna Y Q Ho, Yi Yang, Yuhan Yao, Maayane T Soumagnac, Melissa L Graham, Cristina Barbarino, Leonardo Tartaglia, Kishalay De, Daniel A Goldstein, David O Cook, Thomas G Brink, Kirsty Taggart, Lin Yan, Ragnhild Lunnan, Mansi M Kasliwal, Shri R Kulkarni, Peter E Nugent, Frank J Masci, Philippe Rosnet, Scott M Adams, Igor Andreoni, Ashot Bagdasaryan, Eric C Bellm, Kevin B Burdge, Dmitry A Duev, Alison Dugas, Sara Frederick, Samantha Goldwasser, Matthew J Hankins, I Irani, Viraj Karambelkar, Thomas Kupfer, Jingyi Liang, James D Neill, Michael E Porter, Reed Riddle, Yashvi Sharma, Phil Short, Francesco Taddia, Anastasios Tzanidakis, Jan van Roestel, Richard Walters, Zhuyun Zhuang
    Abstract
    Interaction-powered supernovae (SNe) explode within an optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) that could be ejected during eruptive events. To identify and characterize such pre-explosion outbursts, we produce forced-photometry light curves for 196 interacting SNe, mostly of Type IIn, detected by the Zwicky Transient Facility between early 2018 and 2020 June. Extensive… show more
  • 29 Jan 2021 Journal Article Entropy

    Robust Characterization of Multidimensional Scaling Relations between Size Measures for Business Firms

    Yuh Kobayashi, Hideki Takayasu, Shlomo Havlin, Misako Takayasu
    Abstract

    Although the sizes of business firms have been a subject of intensive research, the definition of a “size” of a firm remains unclear. In this study, we empirically characterize in detail the scaling relations between size measures of business firms, analyzing them based on allometric scaling. Using a large dataset of Japanese firms that tracked approximately one million

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  • 29 Jan 2021 Journal Article Nature Reviews Physics

    Network geometry

    Marián Boguñá, Ivan Bonamassa, Manlio De Domenico, Shlomo Havlin, Dmitri Krioukov, M Ángeles Serrano
    Abstract

    Networks are finite metric spaces, with distances defined by the shortest paths between nodes. However, this is not the only form of network geometry: two others are the geometry of latent spaces underlying many networks and the effective geometry induced by dynamical processes in networks. These three approaches to network geometry are intimately related, and all three

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  • 28 Jan 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Comment on “Inverse Square Lévy Walks are not Optimal Search Strategies for $d \geq 2$”

    Sergey V Buldyrev, Ernesto P Raposo, Frederic Bartumeus, Shlomo Havlin, F Rusch, M G E da Luz, Gandhimohan M Viswanathan
    Abstract
    It is widely accepted that inverse square Levy walks are optimal search strategies because they maximize the encounter rate with sparse, randomly distributed, replenishable targets when the search restarts in the vicinity of the previously visited target, which becomes revisitable again with high probability, i.e., non-destructive foraging [Nature 401, 911 (1999)]. The… show more
  • 28 Jan 2021 Patent

    Device And Method For Spectral Imaging

    Yuval Garini, Irena Bronshtein, Iris Barshack
    Abstract
    A spectral imaging device includes an imager, a scanning stage to establish relative motion between the imager and a sample in a scanning direction and an optical system controlling a light characteristic of a light beam constituting an image of the sample to the imager. The optical system includes a light varying element to receive the light beam and provide an output… show more
  • 21 Jan 2021 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Faceting and Flattening of Emulsion Droplets: A Mechanical Model

    Ireth García-Aguilar, Piermarco Fonda, Eli Sloutskin, Luca Giomi
    Abstract
    When cooled down, emulsion droplets stabilized by a frozen interface of alkane molecules and surfactants have been observed to undergo a spectacular sequence of morphological transformations: from spheres to faceted liquid icosahedra, down to flattened liquid platelets. While generally ascribed to the interplay between the elasticity of the frozen interface and surface… show more
  • 20 Jan 2021 Journal Article Entropy

    Non-Normalizable Quasi-Equilibrium Solution of the Fokker–Planck Equation for Nonconfining Fields

    Celia Anteneodo, Lucianno Defaveri, Eli Barkai, David A Kessler
    Abstract

    We investigate the overdamped Langevin motion for particles in a potential well that is asymptotically flat. When the potential well is deep as compared to the temperature, physical observables, like the mean square displacement, are essentially time-independent over a long time interval, the stagnation epoch. However, the standard Boltzmann–Gibbs (BG) distribution is

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  • 19 Jan 2021 Journal Article AIP Advances

    DNA origami based superconducting nanowires

    Abstract
    Utilizing self-assembled DNA structures in the development of nanoelectronic circuits requires transforming the DNA strands into highly conducting wires. Toward this end, we investigate the use of DNA self-assembled nanowires as templates for the deposition of a superconducting material. Nanowires formed by the deposition of superconducting NbN exhibit thermally activated… show more
  • 15 Jan 2021 Journal Article Applied Surface Science

    Analysis of fluctuations in the Raman spectra of suspended and supported graphene films

    Abstract
    The repeatability of the Raman scattering (RS) spectra was analyzed in monolayer and bilayer CVD-grown graphene films. Position and width of the two main RS lines (G-line and 2D-line) together with their intensity ratio I2D/IG were measured in samples where graphene film was supported by a SiO2/Si substrate and where the film was suspended over pits in the substrate… show more
  • 13 Jan 2021 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Effect of vortex annihilation lines on magnetic relaxation in high-temperature superconductors

    Abstract
    We show that in superconductors of type II, where Abrikosov vortices with different polarities are present, the areas where they meet and annihilate each other ($B=0$ lines) ``attract'' a significant part of the magnetization current $j$. This leads to redistribution of $j$ over the sample, and as a result, the rate of magnetic relaxation is reduced. This effect is… show more
  • 11 Jan 2021 Journal Article European Physical Journal D

    Gas-phase studies of the retinal protonated Schiff base chromophore

    Yoni Toker, Lars H Andersen
    Abstract
    Gas-phase studies of the retinal protonated Schiff base chromophore are reviewed. The use of action spectroscopy has solidified the understanding of the spectral-tuning mechanisms of this important chromophore. Ion-mobility spectrometry and gas phase femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy studies indicate that several of the remarkable photo-isomerization properties of… show more
  • 4 Jan 2021 Journal Article European Physical Journal Plus

    Spin and entanglement in general relativity

    Abstract

    In a previous paper, we have shown how the classical and quantum relativistic dynamics of the Stueckelberg–Horwitz–Piron [SHP] theory can be embedded in general relativity (GR). We briefly review the SHP theory here and, in particular, the formulation of the theory of spin in the framework of relativistic quantum theory. We show here how the quantum theory of relativistic

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  • Jan 2021 Journal Article Graphene

    Green's functions and DOS for some 2D lattices

    Eugene Kogan, Godfrey Gumbs
    Abstract
    In this presentation we present the Green’s functions and density of states for the most frequently encountered 2D lattices: square, triangular, honeycomb, kagome, and Lieb lattice. Though the results are well known, we hope that its derivation performed in a uniform way provides some pedagogical value.
  • 29 Dec 2020 Journal Article Applied Physics Letters

    Thickness dependence of elliptical planar Hall effect magnetometers

    Abstract
    We fabricate elliptical planar Hall effect magnetometers with Permalloy thickness ranging between 25 and 200 nm. We study the thickness dependence of their equivalent magnetic noise by examining the effect of the layer thickness on the signal and noise including Joule heating contributions. Sensors with a thickness of 50 nm achieve equivalent magnetic noise as low as… show more
  • 28 Dec 2020 Journal Article Physical Review E

    Saffman-Taylor fingers at intermediate noise

    Abstract
    We study Saffman-Taylor flow in the presence of intermediate noise numerically by using both a boundary-integral approach as well as the Kadanoff-Liang modified diffusion-limited aggregation model that incorporates surface tension and reduced noise. For little to no noise, both models reproduce the well-known Saffman-Taylor finger. We compare both models in the region… show more
  • 22 Dec 2020 Journal Article IEEE Sensors

    Detection of Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields Down to Sub-pT Resolution With Planar-Hall Effect Sensors

    Abstract
    Using planar Hall effect sensors with magnetic flux concentrators, we measure magnetic fields at frequencies below 100 Hz. We show that for a measurement time of up to 100 s, it is possible to detect fields of ∼700 fT and ∼1 pT at 10 Hz and 0.1 Hz, respectively. In addition, we measure the linearity and hysteresis of the sensor for fields ≤2.6 μ T. These features… show more
  • 11 Dec 2020 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Fractional Advection-Diffusion-Asymmetry Equation

    Abstract
    Fractional kinetic equations employ noninteger calculus to model anomalous relaxation and diffusion in many systems. While this approach is well explored, it so far failed to describe an important class of transport in disordered systems. Motivated by work on contaminant spreading in geological formations, we propose and investigate a fractional advection-diffusion… show more
  • 11 Dec 2020 Preprint arXiv

    Gain As Configurable Disorder-Adaptive Pumping for Control of Multimode Fiber Amplifiers and Lasers

    Tom Sperber, Vincent Billault, Bernard Dussardier, Sylvain Gigan, Patrick Sebbah
    Abstract
    Media featuring both optical gain and disorder, such as random lasers, represent formidable challenges as subjects of research due to the high complexity of the light propagation within them; however, dramatic advances in this nascent field have been furnished by the paradigm of applying wavefront shaping techniques to the beam pumping the system. We present here a… show more
  • 9 Dec 2020 Journal Article Physical Review E

    Stability, isolated chaos, and superdiffusion in nonequilibrium many-body interacting systems

    Abstract
    We study stability and chaotic-transport features of paradigmatic nonequilibrium many-body systems, i.e., periodically kicked and interacting particles, for arbitrary number of particles, nonintegrability strength unbounded from above, and different interaction cases. We rigorously show that under the latter general conditions and in strong nonintegrability regimes… show more
  • 9 Dec 2020 Preprint Research Square

    Reviving a failed network via microscopic interventions

    Hillel Sanhedrai, Jianxi Gao, Moshe Schwartz, Shlomo Havlin, Baruch Barzel
    Abstract
    From mass extinction to cell death, complex networked systems often exhibit abrupt dynamic transitions between desirable and undesirable states. Such transitions are often caused by topological perturbations, such as node or link removal, or decreasing link strengths. The problem is that reversing the topological damage, namely retrieving the lost nodes/links or… show more
  • 9 Dec 2020 Journal Article Physical Review E

    Taming the diffusion approximation through a controlling-factor WKB method

    Abstract
    The diffusion approximation (DA) is widely used in the analysis of stochastic population dynamics, from population genetics to ecology and evolution. The DA is an uncontrolled approximation that assumes the smoothness of the calculated quantity over the relevant state space and fails when this property is not satisfied. This failure becomes severe in situations where… show more
  • 8 Dec 2020 Journal Article Scientific Reports

    Universal scaling laws of collective human flow patterns in urban regions

    Yohei Shida, Hideki Takayasu, Shlomo Havlin, Misako Takayasu
    Abstract
    Detail observation of human locations became available recently by the development of information technology such as mobile phones with GPS (Global Positioning System). We analyzed temporal changes of global human flow patterns in urban regions based on mobile phones’ GPS data in 9 large cities in Japan. By applying a new concept of drainage basins in analogous to river… show more
  • 3 Dec 2020 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Observations of symmetry-induced topological mode steering in a reconfigurable elastic plate

    Kun Tang, Mehul P Makwana, Richard V Craster, Patrick Sebbah
    Abstract
    We experimentally investigate the valley-Hall effect for interfacial edge states, highlighting the importance of the modal patterns between geometrically distinct regions within a structured elastic plate. These experiments, for vibration, are at a scale where detailed measurements are taken throughout the system and not just at the input/output ports; this exposes the… show more
  • 1 Dec 2020 Journal Article Ecology

    Intraspecific variability in fluctuating environments: mechanisms of impact on species diversity

    Bnaya Steinmetz, Michael Kalyuzhny, Nadav M Shnerb
    Abstract
    Recent studies have found considerable trait variations within species. The effect of such intra-specific trait variability (ITV) on the stability, coexistence and diversity of ecological communities received considerable attention and in many models it was shown to impede coexistence and decrease species diversity. Here we present a numerical study of the effect of… show more
  • Dec 2020 Journal Article Physica Status Solidi (a)

    Laser Recording in Chalcogenide Glass Films: Driving Forces and Kinetics of the Mass Transfer

    Abstract
    Herein, precision recording of indented dots and lines in As10Se90 and As2S3 chalcogenide glass films by a focused laser beam is demonstrated and the kinetics and mechanisms of mass transfer under illumination are studied. Due to inhomogeneous intensity distribution and local heating of the film at the focal point, the beam at rest produces an indentation whose depth… show more
  • 14 Nov 2020 Journal Article Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

    Gas Phase Bond Formation in Dipeptide Clusters

    Abstract
    Protein bonds between amino acids are one of the most important biological linkages that create life. The detection of amino acids in the interstellar environments and in meteorites may lead to the suggestion that amino acids came from outer space and that peptides bonds may have been created in the gas phase. Here we show experimentally the creation of covalent bonds… show more
  • 12 Nov 2020 Journal Article Scientific Reports

    Power-law scaling to assist with key challenges in artificial intelligence

    Abstract
    Power-law scaling, a central concept in critical phenomena, is found to be useful in deep learning, where optimized test errors on handwritten digit examples converge as a power-law to zero with database size. For rapid decision making with one training epoch, each example is presented only once to the trained network, the power-law exponent increased with the number… show more
  • 11 Nov 2020 Journal Article Physical Review E

    Large deviations of the ballistic Lévy walk model

    Abstract
    We study the ballistic Levy walk stemming from an infinite mean traveling time between collision events. Our study focuses on the density of spreading particles all starting from a common origin, which is limited by a "light" cone -v_{0}t
  • 10 Nov 2020 Journal Article Nature Communications

    DNA-assembled superconducting 3D nanoscale architectures

    Lior Shani, Aaron Michelson, Brian Minevich, Yafit Fleger, Michael Stern, Avner Shaulov, Yosef Yeshurun, Oleg Gang
    Abstract
    Studies of nanoscale superconducting structures have revealed various physical phenomena and led to the development of a wide range of applications. Most of these studies concentrated on one- and two-dimensional structures due to the lack of approaches for creation of fully engineered three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures. Here, we present a ‘bottom-up’ method to create… show more
  • 9 Nov 2020 Preprint arXiv

    Negative Magneto-Resistance in a Long Superconducting Wires: Theory and Experiments

    Abstract
    The effect of negative magnetoresistance for thin superconducting wire was considered in a simple model. These phenomena originated from competition of two mechanism: fluctuations of the order parameter and quasiparticles charge imbalance which accompanies each phase slip event. First process results in conventional positive magnetoresistance while the second mechanism… show more
  • 2 Nov 2020 Journal Article Nature Metabolism

    Age-related loss of gene-to-gene transcriptional coordination among single cells

    Abstract
    A long-standing model holds that stochastic aberrations of transcriptional regulation play a key role in the process of ageing. While transcriptional dysregulation is observed in many cell types in the form of increased cell-to-cell variability, its generality to all cell types remains doubted. Here, we propose a new approach for analysing transcriptional regulation in… show more
  • 1 Nov 2020 Journal Article Optics Letters

    Twisted ribbon carousels in random, three-dimensional optical fields

    Abstract
    The instantaneous electric vector in a random three-dimensional optical field is shown to generate twisted ribbon carousels that spin about their axes. The ribbons can be right or left handed and can unwind and rewind in time, changing their handedness during an optical cycle. Analytical formulas describing this behavior are presented.
  • Nov 2020 Journal Article Diamond and Related Materials

    Effect of radiation damage on the quantum optical properties of nitrogen vacancies in diamond

    Hadar Genish, Kumaravelu Ganesan, Alastair Stacey, Steven Prawer, Michael Rosenbluh
    Abstract

    Single crystal diamond (<5 ppm nitrogen) containing native NV centers with coherence time of 150 μs was irradiated with 2 MeV alpha particles, with doses ranging from 1012 ion/cm2 to 1015 ion/cm2. The effect of ion damage on the coherence time of NV centers was studied using optically detected magnetic resonance and supplemented by fluorescence and Raman microscopy

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  • 29 Oct 2020 Journal Article Physical Review E

    Extreme value theory for constrained physical systems

    Abstract
    We investigate extreme value theory for physical systems with a global conservation law which describes renewal processes, mass transport models, and long-range interacting spin models. As shown previously, a special feature is that the distribution of the extreme value exhibits a nonanalytical point in the middle of the support. We expose exact relationships between… show more
  • 23 Oct 2020 Preprint arXiv

    Classical and wave chaos in the transformation from curved to flat surfaces

    Abstract
    We study classical and wave chaotic dynamics of light both on a curved surface and on a table billiard with nonuniform distribution of refractive index. Inspired by the concept of transformation optics, we demonstrate that these two systems are fundamentally equivalent in terms of both light rays and waves, under a conformal coordinate transformation. This total… show more
  • 23 Oct 2020 Journal Article The Astrophysical Journal

    Constraining Low-luminosity Gamma-Ray Bursts as Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Ray Sources Using GRB 060218 as a Proxy

    Filip Samuelsson, Damien Bégué, Felix Ryde, Asaf Pe'er, Kohta Murase
    Abstract
    We study the connection between low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts (llGRBs) and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) using the canonical low-luminosity GRB 060218 as a proxy. We focus on the consequential synchrotron emission from electrons that are co-accelerated in the UHECR acceleration region, comparing this emission to observations. Both the prompt and afterglow… show more
  • 22 Oct 2020 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Super-Poissonian behavior of the Rosenzweig-Porter model in the nonergodic extended regime

    Abstract
    The Rosenzweig-Porter model has seen a resurgence in interest as it exhibits a nonergodic extended phase between the ergodic extended metallic phase and the localized phase. Such a phase is relevant to many physical models from the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model in high-energy physics and quantum gravity to the interacting many-body localization in condensed-matter physics… show more
  • 20 Oct 2020 Journal Article Physical Review Research

    Dark states of quantum search cause imperfect detection

    Abstract
    We consider a quantum walk where a detector repeatedly probes the system with fixed rate $1/\tau$ until the walker is detected. This is a quantum version of the first-passage problem. We focus on the total probability, $P_{\mathrm{det}}$, that the particle is eventually detected in some target state, for example on a node $r_{\mathrm{d}}$ on a graph, after an arbitrary… show more
  • 16 Oct 2020 Journal Article Physical Review Research

    Regularized Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics for a Brownian particle in a non-confining field

    Lucianno Defaveri, Celia Anteneodo, David A Kessler, Eli Barkai
    Abstract
    We consider an overdamped Brownian particle subject to an asymptotically flat potential with a trap of depth $U_0$ around the origin. When the temperature is small compared to the trap depth ($\xi=k_B T/U_0 \ll 1$), there exists a range of timescales over which physical observables remain practically constant. This range can be very long, of the order of the Arrhenius… show more
  • 16 Oct 2020 Journal Article Physical Review Research

    Regularized Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics for a non-confining field

    Lucianno Defaveri, Celia Anteneodo, David A Kessler, Eli Barkai
    Abstract
    We consider an overdamped Brownian particle subject to an asymptotically flat potential with a trap of depth U 0 around the origin. When the temperature is small compared to the trap depth ( ξ = k B T / U 0 1 ), there exists a… show more
  • 13 Oct 2020 Preprint arXiv

    Selective Pumping of Localized States in a Disordered Active Medium

    Bhupesh Kumar, Mélanie Lebental, Patrick Sebbah
    Abstract
    Light scattering and localization in strongly scattering disordered systems is governed by the nature of the underlying eigenmodes, specially their spatial extension within the system. One of the main challenges in studying experimentally Anderson like localized states resides in the difficulty to excite these states independently and observe them individually anywhere… show more
  • 12 Oct 2020 Journal Article Physical Review B

    Twinned nanostructure of VO 2 thin films grown on r-cut sapphire

    Anatoly Shabalin, Elihu Anouchi, Nelson Hua, Yimin A Wu, Martin Holt, Amos Sharoni, Oleg Shpyrko
    Abstract
    Due to strong electron-phonon interactions, strain engineering is a powerful tool to control quantum critical phenomena in strongly correlated oxides. Exploring this possibility requires understanding the nanoscale structure of quantum materials and the role it plays in forming the strain landscape. Here, we used a combination of x-ray nanoimaging and reciprocal space… show more
  • 8 Oct 2020 Journal Article Advanced Materials Interfaces

    Magnetic Organization of Neural Networks via Micro-Patterned Devices

    Abstract
    Guiding neuronal migration and outgrowth has great importance for therapeutic applications and for bioelectronics interfaces. Many efforts have been devoted to the development of tools to form predesigned structured neuronal networks. Here, a unique approach to localize cell bodies and direct neurite outgrowth is described based on local magnetic manipulations. Inspired… show more
  • 2 Oct 2020 Journal Article Physical Review Letters

    Universal Voltage Fluctuations in Disordered Superconductors

    Abstract
    The Aharonov-Casher effect is the analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect that applies to neutral particles carrying a magnetic moment. This effect can be manifested by vortices or fluxons flowing in trajectories that encompass an electric charge. These vortices have been predicted to result in a persistent voltage that fluctuates for different sample realizations. Here… show more
  • Oct 2020 Journal Article Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science

    Polyhedral liquid droplets: Recent advances in elucidation and application

    Abstract
    The rediscovery of temperature-controlled self-faceting, shaping, and splitting transitions in liquid oil-in-water emulsion droplets, has recently led to a significant progress in the fundamental understanding of these counterintuitive phenomena, sparking scientific controversies, and opening new routes towards their technological applications. These recent developments are… show more
  • Oct 2020 Journal Article Physical Review Research

    Spreading of localized attacks on spatial multiplex networks with a community structure

    Dana Vaknin, Bnaya Gross, Sergey V Buldyrev, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    We study the effect of localized attacks on a multiplex network, where each layer is a network of communities embedded in space. We assume that nodes are densely connected within a community and sparsely connected to the nodes in the neighboring communities. To investigate percolation processes in this realistic system we develop an analytical scheme, applying the… show more
  • 30 Sep 2020 Preprint arXiv

    Superconducting Dirac point in proximetized graphene

    Abstract
    Two-dimensional (2D) materials, composed of single atomic layers, have attracted vast research interest since the breakthrough discovery of graphene. One major benefit of such systems is the simple ability to tune the chemical potential by back-gating, in-principle enabling to vary the Fermi level through the charge neutrality point, thus tuning between electron and… show more
  • 30 Sep 2020 Journal Article Scientific Reports

    Mitigation of cascading failures in complex networks

    Alex Smolyak, Orr Levy, Irena Vodenska, Sergey V Buldyrev, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    Cascading failures in many systems such as infrastructures or financial networks can lead to catastrophic system collapse. We develop here an intuitive, powerful and simple-to-implement approach for mitigation of cascading failures on complex networks based on local network structure. We offer an algorithm to select critical nodes, the protection of which ensures better… show more
  • 25 Sep 2020 Journal Article Europhysics Letters

    Spatio-temporal propagation of COVID-19 pandemics

    Bnaya Gross, Zhiguo Zheng, Shiyan Liu, Xiaoqi Chen, Alon Sela, Jianxin Li, Daqing Li, Shlomo Havlin
    Abstract
    The coronavirus known as COVID-19 has spread worldwide since December 2019 Without any vaccination or medicine, the means of controlling it are limited to quarantine and social distancing Here we study the spatio-temporal propagation of the first wave of the COVID-19 virus in China and compare it to other global locations We provide a comprehensive picture of the spatial… show more
  • 22 Sep 2020 Journal Article Review of Scientific Instruments

    AC Measurement of the Nernst effect of thin films at low temperatures

    Yuxiao Wu, S Dutta, J Jesudasan, Aviad Frydman, A Roy
    Abstract
    We describe an alternating current method to measure the Nernst effect in superconducting thin films at low temperatures. The Nernst effect is an important tool in the understanding of superconducting fluctuations and, in particular, vortex motion near critical points. However, in most materials, the Nernst signal in a typical experimental setup rarely exceeds a few μV… show more