1. 23 Jul 2022 Journal Article Journal of Language Evolution

    A Cognitive Bias for Zipfian Distributions? Uniform Distributions Become More Skewed via Cultural Transmission

    Abstract

    There is growing evidence that cognitive biases play a role in shaping language structure. Here, we ask whether such biases could contribute to the propensity of Zipfian word-frequency distributions in language, one of the striking commonalities between languages. Recent theoretical accounts and experimental findings suggest that such distributions provide a facilitative

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  2. 21 Jul 2022 Journal Article Philosophical Psychology

    Empirical evidence for moral Bayesianism

    Abstract

    Many philosophers in the field of meta-ethics believe that rational degrees of confidence in moral judgments should have a probabilistic structure, in the same way as do rational degrees of belief. The current paper examines this position, termed “moral Bayesianism,” from an empirical point of view. To this end, we assessed the extent to which degrees of moral judgments

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  3. 14 Jul 2022 Journal Article PLOS Computational Biology

    If you don't let it in, you don't have to get it out: Thought preemption as a method to control unwanted thoughts

    Abstract

    To attain goals, people must proactively prevent interferences and react to interferences once they occur. Whereas most research focuses on how people deal with external interferences, here we investigate the use of proactive and reactive control in dealing with unwanted thoughts. To examine this question, we asked people to generate an association to each of several

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  4. 13 Jul 2022 Preprint PsyArXiv

    Emotions as Computations

    Abstract

    Emotions ubiquitously impact action, learning, and perception, yet their essence and role remain widely debated. Recent progress in computational cognitive accounts of emotion promises to answer these questions with greater conceptual precision informed by normative principles and neurobiological data. We analyze this literature using the formalism of reinforcement

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  5. 9 Jul 2022 Journal Article Current Opinion in Psychology

    The Vicious Cycle of Violent Intergroup Conflicts and Conspiracy Theories

    Abstract

    Conspiracy theories widely influence our social and political lives. Thus, it is no surprise that in recent years much research has focused on the factors that may drive the belief in such theories. While we know that different contexts can lead to the development and amplification of conspiracy theories; those involving fear, uncertainty, and loss of control have been

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  6. 8 Jul 2022 Journal Article Annual Review of Neuroscience

    Neuroscientific Evidence for Processing Without Awareness

    Liad Mudrik, Leon Y Deouell
    Abstract

    The extent to which we are affected by perceptual input of which we are unaware is widely debated. By measuring neural responses to sensory stimulation, neuroscientific data could complement behavioral results with valuable evidence. Here we review neuroscientific findings of processing of high-level information, as well as interactions with attention and memory. Although

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  7. 8 Jul 2022 Journal Article Npj Mental Health Research

    A corticostriatal pathway mediating self-efficacy enhancement

    Ofir Shany, Guy Gurevitch, Gadi Gilam, Netta Dunsky, Shira Reznik Balter, Ayam Greental, Noa Nutkevitch, Eran Eldar, Talma Hendler
    Abstract

    Forming positive beliefs about one’s ability to perform challenging tasks, often termed self-efficacy, is fundamental to motivation and emotional well-being. Self-efficacy crucially depends on positive social feedback, yet people differ in the degree to which they integrate such feedback into self-beliefs (i.e., positive bias). While diminished positive bias of this

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  8. 7 Jul 2022 Preprint bioRxiv

    Neural Correlates of Statistical Learning in Developmental Dyslexia: An Electroencephalography Study

    Tatsuya Daikoku, Sebastian Jentschke, Vera Tsogli, Kirstin Bergström, Thomas Lachmann, Merav Ahissar, Stefan Koelsch
    Abstract

    The human brain extracts statistical regularities from the surrounding environment in a process referred to as statistical learning. Recent behavioural evidence suggests that developmental dyslexia affects statistical learning. However, surprisingly few neurophysiological studies have assessed how developmental dyslexia affects the neural processing underlying statistical

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  9. 3 Jul 2022 Journal Article Political Communication

    How Political Efficacy Relates to Online and Offline Political Participation: A Multilevel Meta-analysis

    Jennifer Oser, Amit Grinson, Shelley Boulianne, Eran Halperin
    Abstract

    The rapid rise of digital media use for political participation has coincided with an increase in concerns about citizens’ sense of their capacity to impact political processes. These dual trends raise the important question of how people’s online political participation is connected to perceptions of their own capacity to participate in and influence politics. The

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  10. 1 Jul 2022 Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

    Out of sight, out of mind: The emotional determinant of “harmful inaction” intergroup conflict

    Julia Elad-Strenger, Michal Reifen Tagar, Thomas Kessler, Yossi Hasson, Deborah Shulman, Kea S Brahms, Eran Halperin
    Abstract

    Groups in conflict can act against one another in various ways, such as inflicting physical injury upon out-group members, actively expelling them from the social sphere or denying them basic rights. While intergroup conflict literature is mostly dedicated to identifying the psychological determinants of such overt, or active, forms of intergroup harm, less research

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