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  • Dec 2021 Journal Article Materials Today Advances

    Understanding how single-atom site density drives the performance and durability of PGM-free Fe–N–C cathodes in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Horie Adabi, Pietro Giovanni Santori, Abolfazl Shakouri, Xiong Peng, Karam Yassin, Igal G Rasin, Simon Brandon, Dario R Dekel, Noor Ul Hassan, Moulay-Tahar Sougrati, Andrea Zitolo, John R Varcoe, John R Regalbuto, Frédéric Jaouen, William E Mustain
    Abstract

    One of the most important needs for the future of low-cost fuel cells is the development of highly active platinum group metal (PGM)-free catalysts. For the oxygen reduction reaction, Fe–N–C materials have been widely studied in both acid and alkaline media. However, reported catalysts in the literature show quite different intrinsic activity and in-cell performance

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  • 16 Nov 2021 Journal Article Chemical Engineering Journal

    Towards on-demand photocatalysis: controlling the operation of a photocatalytic reactor based on real-time, automatic monitoring of toxicity towards the working bacteria of a proceeding bioreactor

    Abstract

    Wastewater streams contain a large number of contaminants, part of which can be quite toxic for the working bacteria in bioreactors, thus hampering its efficiency. In such cases, pretreatment by an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) might be needed. Since, in general, biotreatment is more economic than AOP, it is sensible to design the integrated system in a manner that

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  • 15 Nov 2021 Journal Article Chemical Engineering Journal Advances

    A high-temperature anion-exchange membrane fuel cell with a critical raw material-free cathode

    John C Douglin, Ramesh-Kumar Singh, Saja Haj-Bsoul, Songlin Li, Jasper Biemolt, Ning Yan, John R Varcoe, Gadi Rothenberg, Dario R Dekel
    Abstract

    We present a first high-temperature anion-exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-AEMFC, operating at 105 °C) based on a critical raw material (CRM)-free cathode catalyst; at the same temperature, the anion-exchange membrane (AEM) has a high ex-situ hydroxide conductivity value of 201 mS cm−1. Our HT-AEMFC, containing a highly active nitrogen-doped carbon (N-doped-C) cathode

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  • 15 Nov 2021 Journal Article Angewandte Chemie

    Corroles: The Hitherto Elusive Parent Macrocycle and its Metal Complexes

    Abstract

    Corroles, macrocycles that owe their name to the cobalt-chelating prosthetic group of vitamin B12 and share numerous features with the iron-chelating porphyrin present in heme proteins/enzymes, constantly cross new boundaries ever since stable derivatives became easily accessible. Particularly important is the increasing utilization of corroles and the corresponding

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  • 3 Nov 2021 Journal Article Applied Energy

    Underground solar energy storage via energy piles: An experimental study

    Qijie Ma, Peijun Wang, Jianhua Fan, Assaf Klar
    Abstract

    Energy storage needs to account for the intermittence of solar radiation if solar energy is to be used to answer the heat demands of buildings. Energy piles, which embed thermal loops into the pile body, have been used as heat exchangers in ground source heat pump systems to replace traditional boreholes. Therefore, it is proposed to store solar thermal energy underground

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  • 13 Oct 2021 Journal Article Journal of Chemical Physics

    Enhanced Li-ion diffusion and electrochemical performance in strained-manganese-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles

    Anuj Bhargava, Yuval Elbaz, Quynh Sam, Michelle A Smeaton, Lena F Kourkoutis, Maytal Caspary Toroker, Richard D Robinson
    Abstract

    Efforts to improve energy storage depend greatly on the development of efficient electrode materials. Recently, strain has been employed as an alternate approach to improve ion mobility. While lattice strain has been well-researched in catalytic applications, its effects on electrochemical energy storage are largely limited to computational studies due to complexities

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  • 11 Oct 2021 Journal Article Chemical Engineering Journal

    Predicting the Domain and Nature of Instabilities in Charging and Discharging Li Batteries

    Abstract

    A pattern of sequential group-by-group charging or discharging, of Li batteries with phase-separation thermodynamics, was detected by numerical simulations and justified by several experiments published in literature. The present work is the first to quantitatively predict the main characteristics of the sequential symmetry breaking (SB) events, such as the average Li

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  • 10 Oct 2021 Journal Article Catalysts

    Electron Mediation and Photocurrent Enhancement in Dunalliela salina Driven Bio-Photo Electrochemical Cells

    Abstract

    In recent years, finding alternatives for fossil fuels has become a major concern. One promising solution is microorganism-based bio-photo electrochemical cells (BPECs) that utilize photosynthetic solar energy conversion as an energy source while absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere. It was previously reported that in cyanobacterial-based BPECs, the major endogenous

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  • 8 Oct 2021 Journal Article Annual Review of Microbiology

    Microbial Rhodopsins: The Last Two Decades

    Andrey Rozenberg, Keiichi Inoue, Hideki Kandori, Oded Beja
    Abstract

    Microbial rhodopsins are diverse photoreceptive proteins containing a retinal chromophore and are found in all domains of cellular life and are even encoded in genomes of viruses. These rhodopsins make up two families: type 1 rhodopsins and the recently discovered heliorhodopsins. These families have seven transmembrane helices with similar structures but opposing

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  • 8 Oct 2021 Journal Article Journal of Power Sources

    Hybridization of carbon nanotube tissue and MnO2 as a generic advanced air cathode in metal–air batteries

    Natasha Ronith Levy, Polina Tereschuk, Amir Natan, Ronja Haas, Daniel Schröder, Jürgen Janek, Peter Jakes, Rüdiger-A Eichel, Yair Ein-Eli
    Abstract

    This paper presents the utilization of hybrid carbon nano-tube (CNT) – manganese dioxide (MnO2) tissues as air electrodes in nonaqueous aluminum- and lithium-based battery systems. The CNT tissues are impregnated with α-manganese dioxide nanoparticles via a straightforward binder-free ultrasonic treatment, thereby enabling an improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)

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  • 6 Oct 2021 Journal Article ChemSusChem

    Tailoring Quantum Dot Sizes for Optimal Photoinduced Catalytic Activation of Nitrogenase

    Abstract

    Many efforts have been directed towards elucidating the nitrogenase structure, its biocatalytic activity, and methods to artificially activate it by external stimuli. Here, we investigated how semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with sizes ranging between 2.3–3.5 nm form nano-biohybrids with the nitrogenase enzyme and enable its photoinduced biocatalytic activity. We

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  • 4 Oct 2021 Journal Article Electrochemistry Communications

    Voltage loss breakdown in desalination fuel cells

    Salman Abdalla, Abu Khalla Shada, Matthew E Suss
    Abstract

    The desalination fuel cell (DFC) is a novel technology for co-production of electricity and desalinated water from a clean energy source, the H2/O2 redox couple. A DFC utilizes a fuel cell anode and cathode to catalyze the chemical-to-electrical energy conversion, as well as a cation and anion exchange membrane to desalinate the feedwater flowing through the cell. To

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  • 1 Oct 2021 Journal Article Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics

    Fe–N–C Electrocatalysts in the Oxygen and Nitrogen Cycles in Alkaline Media: The Role of Iron Carbide

    Abstract

    Fe–N–C electrocatalysts hold a great promise for Pt-free energy conversion, driving the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction and evolution, oxidation of nitrogen fuels, and reduction of N2, CO2, and NOx. Nevertheless, the catalytic role of iron carbide, a component of nearly every pyrolytic Fe–N–C material, is at the focus of a heated controversy. We now resolve the

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  • Oct 2021 Journal Article Journal of Power Sources Advances

    A surprising relation between operating temperature and stability of anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Abstract

    Anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) show substantially enhanced (initial) performance and efficiency with the increase of operational temperature (where typical values are below 80 °C). This is directly due to the increase in reaction and mass transfer rates with temperature. Common sense suggests however that the increase of ionomeric material chemical

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  • Oct 2021 Journal Article ECS Transactions

    Synthesis and Characterization of Platinum on Carbon Nanoparticles Selectively Coated with Titanium Nitride (TiN)

    Richard Andres Ortiz Godoy, Saidjafarzoda Ilhom, Mor Kattan, Pablo Zarama, Yair Ein-Eli, Necmi Biyikli, Jasna Jankovic
    Abstract

    Here we propose a novel way to prevent the insidious effect of carbon corrosion in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) by depositing a corrosion-resistant layer (~1.5 nm thick) of Titanium Nitride (TiN) on the carbon substrate of platinum on carbon (Pt/C) catalyst (in powder state), leaving the Pt catalyst centers uncoated and accessible for reagents reactions

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  • 25 Sep 2021 Journal Article Energy Reports

    Frequency stability of the Israeli power grid with high penetration of renewable sources and energy storage systems

    Gefen Ben Yosef, Aviad Navon, Olga Poliak, Naomi Etzion, Nurit Gal, Juri Belikov, Yoash Levron
    Abstract

    As countries worldwide are integrating more energy storage systems and renewable energy sources, it is important to examine how these impact the frequency stability of the grid. In this study we explore this question by focusing on Israel in 2025. Based on the Israeli power grid model in 2025, which includes detailed information on the entire transmission network

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  • 23 Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of Physical Chemistry B

    Ultrafast Electron Transfer in a Self-Assembling Sulfonated Aluminum Corrole-Methylviologen Complex

    Clark Zahn, T Stensitzki, Alexander Berg, Atif Mahammed, Angelica Zacarias, Zeev Gross, Karsten Heyne
    Abstract

    Photoinduced electron transfer systems can mimic certain features of natural photosynthetic reaction centers, which are crucial for solar energy production. Among other tetra-pyrroles, the versatile chemical and photophysical properties of corroles make them very promising donors applicable in donor-acceptor complexes. Here, we present a first comprehensive study of

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  • 23 Sep 2021 Journal Article Fermentation

    Bio-Based Polyisoprene Can Mitigate Climate Change and Deforestation in Expanding Rubber Production

    Rahamim Batten, Mukund Karanjikar, Sabrina Spatari
    Abstract

    Biomass is a promising renewable feedstock to produce polyisoprene for the rubber industry. Through metabolic engineering, sugars derived from pretreated and hydrolyzed cellulose and hemicellulose can be directly fermented to isoprene to produce rubber. Here we investigate the life cycle environmental impact of isoprene fermentation to produce bio-polyisoprene from

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  • 22 Sep 2021 Preprint bioRxiv

    Harvesting electrical current from intact plant leaves

    Abstract

    Efforts to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy technologies, especially solar energy conversion, continue to improve the potential to produce useful amounts of energy without significant pollution. Utilization of photosynthetic organisms in bio-photo electrochemical cells (BPECs) are a potentially important source of clean energy. Here, we show that it is possible

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  • 21 Sep 2021 Journal Article Sustainable Energy and Fuels

    Cellulose to electricity conversion by an enzymatic biofuel cell

    Abstract

    The conversion of biomass and other cellulose-based materials to clean energy has high promise for a sustainable world. Herein we present a green methodology to convert cellulose directly into electrical power output by utilizing cellulase complex and an enzymatic biofuel cell. An integrated FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) based anode and a bilirubin

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  • 21 Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of Membrane Science

    High-performance radiation grafted anion-exchange membranes for fuel cell applications: Effects of irradiation conditions on ETFE-based membranes properties

    Ana Laura G Biancolli, Saja Haj-Bsoul, John C Douglin, Andrey S Barbosa, Rogério R de Sousa, Orlando Rodrigues, Alexandre J C Lanfredi, Dario R Dekel, Elisabete I Santiago
    Abstract

    Anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) are rapidly gaining visibility in the clean energy research field due to their high power output and potential to significantly reduce materials costs. However, despite the high performances obtained, in-operando stability still presents a major obstacle for this technology. The durability issues are usually attributed to the

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  • 16 Sep 2021 Journal Article Ceramics

    Influence of Isovalent ‘W’ Substitutions on the Structure and Electrical Properties of La2Mo2O9 Electrolyte for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Abstract

    Lanthanum molybdenum oxide (La2Mo2O9, LAMOX)-based ion conductors have been used as potential electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells. The parent compound La2Mo2O9 undergoes a structural phase transition from monoclinic (P21) to cubic (P213) at 580 °C, with an enhancement in oxide ion conductivity. The cubic phase is of interest because it is beneficial for oxide ion

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  • 15 Sep 2021 Journal Article RSC Advances

    Star-shaped colloidal PbS nanocrystals: structural evolution and growth mechanism

    Abstract

    Branched nanostructures have attracted considerable interest due to their large surface-to-volume ratio with benefits in photocatalysis and photovoltaic applications. Here we discuss the tailoring of branched structures with a shape of a star based on PbS semiconductor. It exposes the reaction mechanism and the controlling factors that template their morphology. For

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  • 12 Sep 2021 Journal Article ChemSusChem

    AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Foils as Thin Anodes for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    Ananya Maddegalla, Ayan Mukherjee, J Alberto Blázquez, Eneko Azaceta, Olatz Leonet, Aroa R Mainar, Aleksey Kovalevsky, Daniel Sharon, Jean-Frédéric Martin, Dane Sotta, Yair Ein-Eli, Doron Aurbach, Malachi Noked
    Abstract

    In recent decades, rechargeable Mg batteries (RMBs) technologies have attracted much attention because the use of thin Mg foil anodes may enable development of high-energy-density batteries. One of the most critical challenges for RMBs is finding suitable electrolyte solutions that enable efficient and reversible Mg cells operation. Most RMB studies concentrate on the

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  • 8 Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of the American Chemical Society

    A Di-Copper-Peptoid in a Noninnocent Borate Buffer as a Fast Electrocatalyst for Homogeneous Water Oxidation with Low Overpotential

    Abstract

    Water electrolysis is a promising approach toward low-cost renewable fuels; however, the high overpotential and slow kinetics limit its applicability. Studies suggest that either dinuclear copper (Cu) centers or the use of borate buffer can lead to efficient catalysis. We previously demonstrated the ability of peptoids-N-substituted glycine oligomers-to stabilize

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  • 6 Sep 2021 Journal Article Energy

    Exploiting the Coandă Effect for Wind-Driven Reciprocating RO Desalination

    Abstract

    The urgent need for fresh water remains a strong driver for reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination, but present-day systems are energy-inefficient and produce significant green-house gas emissions. This motivated our research, which introduces and investigates a novel concept for wind-driven RO desalination. It is based on the Coanda effect, applied periodically by blowing

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  • 3 Sep 2021 Journal Article ACS Applied Energy Materials

    Spatial Distribution of Solar Cell Parameters in Multigrain Halide-Perovskite Films: A Device Model Perspective

    Abstract

    The polycrystalline nature of perovskite thin films suggests that the nonradiative recombination losses may be grain size dependent. We use measured grain size distributions of methylammonium lead triiodide layers to describe the macroscopic solar cell as composed of multiple single grain size cells operating in parallel. Using a model, we show that the grain size

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  • 2 Sep 2021 Journal Article Journal of Materials Chemistry C

    The hole in the bucky: structure–property mapping of closed- vs. open-cage fullerene solar-cell blends via temperature/composition phase diagrams

    Natalie Stingelin, Giovanni Maria Matrone, Elizabeth Gutierrez-Meza, Alex H Balzer, Aditi Khirbat, Artem Levitsky, Alexander B Sieval, Gitti L Frey, Lee J Richter, Carlos Silva
    Abstract

    The morphology development of polymer-based blends, such as those used in organic photovoltaic (OPV) systems, typically arrests in a state away from equilibrium – how far from equilibrium this is will depend on the materials chemistry and the selected assembly parameters/environment. As a consequence, small changes during the blend assembly alter the solid-structure

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  • 1 Sep 2021 Journal Article Electrochimica Acta

    Single Flow Multiphase Flow Batteries: Theory

    Rona Ronen, Amir D Gat, Martin Z Bazant, Matthew E Suss
    Abstract

    Redox flow batteries are an emerging technology for stationary, grid-scale energy storage. Membraneless batteries in particular are explored as a means to reduce battery cost and complexity. Here, a mathematical model is presented for a membraneless electrochemical cell employing a single laminar flow between electrodes, consisting of a continuous, reactant-poor aqueous

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  • 30 Aug 2021 Journal Article Nature Plants

    Cryo-EM photosystem I structure reveals adaptation mechanisms to extreme high light in Chlorella ohadii

    Ido Caspy, Ehud Neumann, Maria Fadeeva, Varda Liveanu, Anton Savitsky, Anna Frank, Yael Levi-Kalisman, Yoel Shkolnisky, Omer Murik, Haim Treves, Volker Hartmann, Marc M Nowaczyk, Wolfgang Schuhmann, Matthias Rögner, Itamar Willner, Aaron Kaplan, Gadi Schuster, Nathan Nelson, Wolfgang Lubitz, Rachel Nechushtai
    Abstract

    Photosynthesis in deserts is challenging since it requires fast adaptation to rapid night-to-day changes, that is, from dawn’s low light (LL) to extreme high light (HL) intensities during the daytime. To understand these adaptation mechanisms, we purified photosystem I (PSI) from Chlorella ohadii, a green alga that was isolated from a desert soil crust, and identified

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  • 26 Aug 2021 Conference Paper IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists

    Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Precursors Used in the Supply Chain of Emerging Perovskite Solar Cells

    Sherif A Khalifa, Sabrina Spatari, Aaron T Fafarman, Jason B Baxter
    Abstract

    This paper presents estimations for life cycle energy demand, human toxicity, and climate change of industrial-scale production of A-site cation precursor chemicals that may be used in production of perovskite solar cells. We employed process scale-up concepts, updated data sources and industry-relevant process modelling assumptions to build commercially relevant life

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  • 25 Aug 2021 Journal Article ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

    Kinetic Resolution of Racemic Mixtures via Enantioselective Photocatalysis

    Abstract

    Despite the increasing demand for enantiopure drugs in the pharmaceutical industry, currently available chiral separation technologies are still lagging behind, whether due to throughput or to operability considerations. This paper presents a new kinetic resolution method, based on the specific adsorption of a target enantiomer onto a molecularly imprinted surface of

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  • 24 Aug 2021 Journal Article Applied Catalysis B: Environmental

    Multi-scale study on bifunctional Co/Fe–N–C cathode catalyst layers with high active site density for the oxygen reduction reaction

    Weikang Zhu, Yabiao Pei, John C Douglin, Junfeng Zhang, Haoyang Zhao, Jiandang Xue, Qingfa Wang, Ran Li, Yanzhou Qin, Yan Yin, Dario R Dekel, Michael D Guiver
    Abstract

    Recently, much work has been devoted to designing catalysts with high porosity and efficient active sites. Although very promising results are achieved using Co/Fe–N–C catalysts based on rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests, actual fuel cell performance is below expectations, probably due to insufficient understanding of the catalyst layer (CL). Therefore, catalyst design

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  • 24 Aug 2021 Journal Article ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

    Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalysis on Mixed Metal Phthalocyanine-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Prepared via Pyrolysis

    Yogesh Kumar, Elo Kibena-Põldsepp, Jekaterina Kozlova, Mihkel Rähn, Alexey Treshchalov, Arvo Kikas, Vambola Kisand, Jaan Aruväli, Aile Tamm, John C Douglin, Scott J Folkman, Ilario Gelmetti, Felipe A Garcés-Pineda, José Ramón Galán-Mascarós, Dario R Dekel, Kaido Tammeveski
    Abstract

    Non-precious-metal catalysts are promising alternatives for Pt-based cathode materials in low-temperature fuel cells, which is of great environmental importance. Here, we have investigated the bifunctional electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of mixed metal (FeNi; FeMn; FeCo) phthalocyanine-modified

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  • 24 Aug 2021 Journal Article Chemistry of Materials

    Silver Tipping of CdSe@CdS Nanorods: How to Avoid Cation Exchange

    Abstract

    Cadmium chalcogenides–metal hybrid nanostructures play an important role in a wide range of applications and are key components in photocatalysis. Hence, great efforts have been devoted to the exploration of a variety of metal components, each offering different functionalities. Silver is a vital catalyst used in the production of major industrial chemicals, found in

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  • 23 Aug 2021 Journal Article Angewandte Chemie International Edition

    Photoinduced Self-Assembly of Carbon Nitride Quantum Dots

    Abstract

    The study of nanocrystal self-assembly into superlattices or superstructures is of great significance in nanoscience. Carbon nitride quantum dots (CNQDs), being a promising new group of nanomaterials, however, have hardly been explored in their self-organizing behavior. Here we report of a unique irradiation-triggered self-assembly and recrystallization phenomenon of

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  • 20 Aug 2021 Journal Article iScience

    Hydrogen evolution catalysis by terminal molybdenum-oxo complexes

    Abstract

    Stable complexes with terminal triply bound metal-oxygen bonds are usually not considered as valuable catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We now report the preparation of three conceptually different (oxo)molybdenum(V) corroles for testing if proton-assisted 2-electron reduction will lead to hyper-reactive molybdenum(III) capable of converting protons

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  • 20 Aug 2021 Journal Article GCB Bioenergy: Bioproducts for a Sustainable Bioeconomy

    Effects of greenhouse gas emissions timing on alternative biomass and fossil energy sources for district heating

    Saurajyoti Kar, Pieter Billen, Lars Bjornebo, Beth Katz, Sheng Yang, Timothy A Volk, Sabrina Spatari
    Abstract

    District heating (DH) systems can improve energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and be a cost-effective residential space heating alternative over conventional decentralized heating. This study uses radiative forcing (RF), a time-sensitive life cycle assessment metric, to evaluate space heating alternatives. We compare forest residue and willow

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  • 12 Aug 2021 Journal Article Advanced Materials

    A Protein-Based Free-Standing Proton-Conducting Transparent Elastomer for Large-Scale Sensing Applications

    Abstract

    A most important endeavor in modern materials’ research is the current shift toward green environmental and sustainable materials. Natural resources are one of the attractive building blocks for making environmentally friendly materials. In most cases, however, the performance of nature-derived materials is inferior to the performance of carefully designed synthetic

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  • 12 Aug 2021 Journal Article Analytical Chemistry

    Utilization of FAD-Glucose Dehydrogenase from T. emersonii for Amperometric Biosensing and Biofuel Cell Devices

    Abstract

    Flavin-dependent glucose dehydrogenases (FAD-GDH) are oxygen-independent enzymes with high potential to be used as biocatalysts in glucose biosensing applications. Here, we present the construction of an amperometric biosensor and a biofuel cell device, which are based on a thermophilic variant of the enzyme originated from Talaromyces emersonii. The enzyme overexpression

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  • 7 Aug 2021 Journal Article Advanced Theory and Simulations

    Perovskite La0.3Sr0.7Fe0.7Cr0.3O3−δ Catalysis Raises the Bar: Preventing Unwanted Near-Surface Sr Segregation and SrCO3 Precipitation

    Abstract

    Sr surface segregation (SSS) in perovskite materials is a main factor causing efficiency degradation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's), and therefore can affect the La0.3Sr0.7Fe0.7Cr0.3O3−δ perovskite, which is known as a compatible anode and cathode in a reversible and symmetric SOFC. As a result of segregation, the atomic rearrangements in the near-surface environment

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  • 4 Aug 2021 Journal Article ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

    Electrospun Ion-Conducting Composite Membrane with Buckling-Induced Anisotropic Through-Plane Conductivity

    Abstract

    Fuel cell (FC) is an attractive green alternative for today’s fuel combustion systems. In common FCs, a polymer electrolyte membrane selectively conducts protons but blocks the passage of electrons and fuel. Nafion, the current benchmark membrane material, has a superior conductivity owing to unique morphology comprising randomly oriented elongated ionic nanochannels

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  • 2 Aug 2021 Journal Article Physics of Fluids

    Flow field characteristics of a confined, underexpanded transient round jet

    Abstract

    The flow field of an impulsively started round, confined nitrogen jet was investigated using combined high speed schlieren imaging and particle velocimetry (PIV) measurements. PIV measurements were carried out at five different, normalized times (55 ≤t≤ 392) relative to jet intrusion into a constant volume chamber. Between 100 < t < 250, the NPR linearly increased

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  • 1 Aug 2021 Journal Article Energy & Environmental Science

    Wasted photons: photogeneration yield and charge carrier collection efficiency of hematite photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Abstract

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a leading photoanode candidate for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Despite extensive research efforts, the champion hematite photoanodes reported to date have achieved less than half of the maximal photocurrent predicted by its bandgap energy. Here we show that this underachievement arises, to a large extent, because of unproductive optical

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  • 1 Aug 2021 Journal Article Macromolecular Rapid Communications

    Ligand Valency Effects on the Alkaline Stability of Metallopolymer Anion-Exchange Membranes

    Abstract

    Long-term stability is a key requirement for anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) for alkaline fuel cells and electrolyzers that is yet to be fulfilled. Different cationic chemistries are being exploited to reach such a goal, and metallopolymers present the unique advantage of chemical stability towards strong nucleophiles as compared to organic cations. Yet, the few

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  • 1 Aug 2021 Journal Article Organic and Hybrid Sensors and Bioelectronics XIV

    Bioderived electronics: utilizing proteins for making large scale assemblies exhibiting superior electronic and optoelectronic properties

    Abstract

    Nature uses proteins for a variety of functions, and among all others, their ability to form high-hierarchical structures as well as to mediate charges. We are inspired by these functions of proteins in nature and utilize proteins for the formation of large-scale conductive materials. We report here on a new family of conductive biopolymers using only sustainable and

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  • 29 Jul 2021 Conference Paper 2021 IEEE Madrid PowerTech

    Assessing Energy Generation and Consumption Patterns in Times of Crisis: COVID-19 as a Case Study

    Abstract

    The COVID-19 pandemic and the preventive measures that followed it have significantly impacted generation and consumption patterns in power systems across the globe, calling for new tools to efficiently evaluate generation and load profiles. In this work, we propose one possible tool, which we name the smoothness index, that evaluates a profile based on both its load

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  • 29 Jul 2021 Conference Paper 2021 IEEE Madrid PowerTech

    A Comparative Study on Graph-based Ranking Algorithms for Consumer-oriented Demand Side Management

    Abiodun E Onile, Juri Belikov, Eduard Petlenkov, Yoash Levron
    Abstract

    In the recent years, the impact of urban climate change and ever-expanding needs for electricity energy calls for urgent attention. Generally, electricity can be conserved by implementing efficiency models that handle effective utilization. To set and monitor energy conservation goals at consumer end, this study presents an innovative ranking approach as Demand Side

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  • 29 Jul 2021 Conference Paper 2021 IEEE Madrid PowerTech

    Construction of Nonlinear Feedback Strategies for Energy Storage Systems: a Stochastic Dynamic Programming Approach

    Nilanjan Roy Chowdhury, Dmitry Baimel, Juri Belikov, Yoash Levron
    Abstract

    It is currently observed that rapid changes in generation and consumption can significantly impact the stability of a power system. In this light, this paper proposes a nonlinear feedback strategy for energy storage systems which operates under uncertainty conditions, and does not require statistical representations of future signals. We employ stochastic dynamic

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  • 29 Jul 2021 Journal Article Journal of Engineering Mathematics

    Acoustic instability in aerosols

    Abstract

    Imposing a temperature gradient on a narrow channel can trigger an acoustic instability, driving self-sustained oscillations of the fluid. The temperature gradient required to trigger the instability is dramatically decreased when the channel wall is covered by a thin film of volatile liquid that can undergo phase change. In the present work, we consider a volatile-droplet

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  • 24 Jul 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Thermodynamics of light management in near-field thermophotovoltaics

    Georgia T Papadakis, Meir Orenstein, Eli Yablonovitch, Shanhui Fan
    Abstract

    We evaluate near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems focusing in particular on their open-circuit voltage (Voc). Unlike previous analyses based largely on numerical simulations with fluctuational electrodynamics, here, we develop an analytic model that captures the physics of near-field TPV systems and can predict their performance metrics. Using

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  • 21 Jul 2021 Journal Article Chemical Communications

    Combining polarized low-frequency Raman with XRD to identify directional structural motifs in a pyrolysis precursor

    Tal Ben Uliel, Eliyahu M Farber, Hagit Aviv, Wowa Stroek, Marilena Ferbinteanu, Yaakov R Tischler, David Eisenberg
    Abstract

    Long–range structures and dynamics are central to coordination chemistry, yet are hard to identify experimentally. By combining polarized low-frequency Raman spectroscopy with single crystal XRD to study barium nitrilotriacetate, a metal–organic coordination polymer and a useful pyrolysis precursor, we could assign Raman peaks experimentally to layer shear motions and

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  • 19 Jul 2021 Journal Article Advanced Energy Materials

    Fast Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Review of Materials Aspects

    Manuel Weiss, Raffael Ruess, Johannes Kasnatscheew, Yehonatan Levartovsky, Natasha Ronith Levy, Philip Minnmann, Lukas Stolz, Thomas Waldmann, Margret Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Doron Aurbach, Martin Winter, Yair Ein-Eli, Jürgen Janek
    Abstract

    Fast charging is considered to be a key requirement for widespread economic success of electric vehicles. Current lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) offer high energy density enabling sufficient driving range, but take considerably longer to recharge than traditional vehicles. Multiple properties of the applied anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials influence the fast-charging

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  • 17 Jul 2021 Journal Article Biotechnology for Biofuels

    Cellulosic biofuel production using emulsified simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (eSSF) with conventional and thermotolerant yeasts

    Shannon M Hoffman, Maria Alvarez, Gilad Alfassi, Dmitry M Rein, Sergio Garcia-Echauri, Yachin Cohen, José L Avalos
    Abstract

    Future expansion of corn-derived ethanol raises concerns of sustainability and competition with the food industry. Therefore, cellulosic biofuels derived from agricultural waste and dedicated energy crops are necessary. To date, slow and incomplete saccharification as well as high enzyme costs have hindered the economic viability of cellulosic biofuels, and while

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  • 15 Jul 2021 Journal Article Advanced Energy Materials

    Molecular Engineering Approaches to Fabricate Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphases on Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries: A Critical Review

    Roman G Fedorov, Sebastian Maletti, Christian Heubner, Alexander Michaelis, Yair Ein-Eli
    Abstract

    An intrinsic challenge of Li-ion batteries is the instability of electrolytes against anode materials. For anodes with a favorably low operating potential, a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed during initial cycles provides stability, traded off for capacity consumption. The SEI is mainly determined by the anode material, electrolyte composition, and formation

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  • 15 Jul 2021 Journal Article Water Research

    Flow-electrode capacitive deionization: A review and new perspectives

    Fan Yang, Yunfei He, Leon Rosentsvit, Matthew E Suss, Xiaori Zhang, Tie Gao, Peng Liang
    Abstract

    Flow-electrode capacitive deionization (FCDI), as a novel electro-driven desalination technology, has attracted growing exploration towards brackish water treatment, hypersaline water treatment, and selective resource recovery in recent years. As a flow-electrode-based electrochemical technology, FCDI has similarities with several other electrochemical technologies such

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  • 9 Jul 2021 Journal Article Molecules

    Enhanced Electrochemical Performance of Supercapacitors via Atomic Layer Deposition of ZnO on the Activated Carbon Electrode Material

    Chongrui Wu, Fuming Zhang, Xiangshang Xiao, Junyan Chen, Junqi Sun, Dayakar Gandla, Yair Ein-Eli, Daniel Qi Tan
    Abstract

    Fabricating electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) with high energy density for various applications has been of great interest in recent years. However, activated carbon (AC) electrodes are restricted to a lower operating voltage because they suffer from instability above a threshold potential window. Thus, they are limited in their energy storage. The deposition

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  • 3 Jul 2021 Journal Article Combustion and Flame

    Flame stabilization and local combustion modes in a cavity-based scramjet using different fuel injection schemes

    Abstract

    This paper investigates the impact of fuel distribution on flame stabilization and local combustion modes in a cavity-based scramjet. Two injection schemes with a global equivalence ratio of 0.4 are comparatively studied. Ethylene is injected only from upstream of the cavity in the first case, whereas in the second case 75% of the fuel is injected from upstream of the

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  • 1 Jul 2021 Journal Article Chemical Science

    Long-range light-modulated charge transport across the molecular heterostructure doped protein biopolymers

    Somen Mondal, Nandan Ghorai, Soumyadip Bhunia, Hirendra N Ghosh, Nadav Amdursky
    Abstract

    Electron transfer (ET) across proteins is ubiquitous in nature, such as the notable photosynthesis example, where light-induced charge separation takes place within the reaction center, followed by sequential ET via intramolecular cofactors within the protein. Here, we introduce carbon dots (C-Dots), which are slowly gaining momentum in being game changers for next

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  • 24 Jun 2021 Journal Article Journal of Materials Chemistry A

    Functionalized gold-nanoparticles enhance photosystem II driven photocurrent in a hybrid nano-bio-photoelectrochemical cell

    Abstract

    The use of photosystem II (PSII) in hybrid bio-photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electrical current is hampered by PSII's narrow absorption cross-section and the generally poor electrical connection between isolated complex and different anode materials. Here, we merge isolated market-grade spinach PSII with 25 nm cystamine-2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone

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  • 17 Jun 2021 Journal Article Journal of Power Sources

    Exploring the mechanical stability of manganese oxide as an electrocatalyst via in-situ surface stress and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance studies

    Or Keisar, Yair Ein-Eli, Yair Cohen
    Abstract

    We report in this study on the combination of resonance frequency shift measurements with the use of Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM), alongside in-situ electrochemical surface stress (ESS) analysis, which provides a comprehensive description of both the microscopic and macroscopic processes occurring on the surface of the oxygen reduction reaction

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  • 15 Jun 2021 Journal Article Building and Environment

    Thermal performance of sculptured tiles for building envelopes

    Abstract

    Since effective thermal insulation of buildings could significantly decrease energy consumption worldwide, this study examined the potential of concrete tiles with complex geometries at improving thermal performance in building envelopes. The study focused on air flow characteristics that occur near the external surface of the tile, and their influence on the rate of

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  • 14 Jun 2021 Journal Article

    The effect of surface phase oxides on the properties of supported metals and catalysis

    Christine Khoury, Matthew M Montemore, Oz M Gazit
    Abstract

    Metal–support interactions have a strong and pivotal influence on catalyst properties. In many cases, these interactions can direct reaction activity, stability, and selectivity. Hence, controlling such interactions has high potential for enhancing catalytic performance. One approach to controlling metal–support interactions is to use a surface phase oxide, wherein a

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  • 10 Jun 2021 Journal Article Frontiers for Young Minds

    Using Computers to Discover Materials That Generate Non-polluting Fuels

    Abstract

    Non-polluting fuels, such as hydrogen, are widely considered to be a promising way to decrease the environmental problems caused by the burning of fossil fuels. Finding materials that can help us to generate these “clean” fuels is a difficult and time-consuming process. Computer simulation technology is the most important tool in this area, because it helps scientists

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  • 10 Jun 2021 Journal Article Journal of Physical Chemistry C

    Development of a Typical Distribution Function of Relaxation Times Model for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells and Quantifying the Resistance to Proton Conduction within the Catalyst Layer

    Abstract

    In recent decades, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technologies have attracted research attention as promising candidates for next-generation energy conversion systems. This work deals with the effect of operating conditions and the construction of a typical model for PEMFCs, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and distribution of relaxation

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  • 3 Jun 2021 Journal Article Energy & Fuels

    Correlating Properties of the Mn2O3-Na2WO4/SiO2 Catalyst with Statistically Estimated Parameters for the Oxidative Coupling of Methane

    Baoting Huang, Naseem Hayek, Guanjie Sun, Sogol Mottaghi-Tabar, David S A Simakov, Oz M Gazit
    Abstract

    Identifying key catalyst parameters that govern catalytic performance is a main challenge for many reactions. The complex and convoluted behavior of the Mn2O3-Na2WO4/SiO2 catalyst for the oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) makes this task even more challenging. Herein, structure–function correlations are obtained using a simplified methodology that involves cross-referencing

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  • 1 Jun 2021 Journal Article Advanced Functional Materials

    Porphyrin Aerogel Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Anion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Noam Zion, John C Douglin, David A Cullen, Piotr Zelenay, Dario R Dekel, Lior Elbaz
    Abstract

    Platinum group metal (PGM)‐free catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction have shown high oxygen reduction reaction activity in alkaline media. In order to further increase the power density of anion‐exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs), PGM‐free catalysts need to have a high site density to reach high current densities. Herein, synthesis, characterization, and utilization

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  • 1 Jun 2021 Journal Article Small

    Template-Free Formation of Regular Macroporosity in Carbon Materials Made from a Folded Polymer Precursor

    Abstract

    Porous carbon materials attract great interest in a wide range of applications such as batteries, fuel cells, and membranes, due to their large surface area, structural and compositional tunability, and chemical stability. While micropores are typically obtained when preparing carbon materials by pyrolysis, the fabrication of mesoporous, and especially macroporous

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  • Jun 2021 Journal Article The Plant Journal

    The desert green algae Chlorella ohadii thrives at excessively high light intensities by exceptionally enhancing the mechanisms that protect photosynthesis from photoinhibition

    Abstract

    Although light is the driving force of photosynthesis, excessive light can be harmful. One of the main processes that limits photosynthesis is photoinhibition, the process of light-induced photodamage. When the absorbed light exceeds the amount that is dissipated by photosynthetic electron flow and other processes, damaging radicals are formed that mostly inactivate

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  • Jun 2021 Conference Paper ECS Meeting Abstracts

    Hydrazine Oxidation Electrocatalysis on Multi-Doped Carbons: Who Does What?

    Abstract

    Electrocatalysis of hydrazine oxidation, a promising carbon-free fuel, is both a practical goal, and a scientific paradox. Hydrazine is a common reductant in chemical synthesis, yet the onset potential for its electro-oxidation reaction is highly dependent on the catalytic surface. Some excellent catalysts have been developed in recent years towards this goal, designed

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  • Jun 2021 Journal Article ECS Meeting Abstracts

    (Invited) Simulations of Ion Diffusion throughout Perovskite Based Solar Cells - Device Level Electrochemistry

    Abstract

    Defect chemistry plays a major role in the operation of perovskites cells. On one hand they are behind the remarkable self-healing,[1] while on the other they dictate the level of traps, non-radiative recombination,[2] as well as promote ion migration.[3] Moreover, once ions reach the electrodes the device degradation is accelerated.[4, 5] Combining the various reports

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  • 30 May 2021 Conference Paper 239th ECS Meeting With the 18th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors (IMCS)

    Continuum Approach for Studying Morphological Deformations of Multiple-Phase Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    Alon Z Shapira, Nir Gavish, Hannes Uecker, Arik Yochelis
    Abstract

    Optimizing the properties of the mosaic morphology of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) is not only challenging technologically but also intriguing from the mechanistic point of view. Among the recent breakthroughs in studies of BHJ morphology, is the identification and utilization of a three-phase (donor/mixed/acceptor) BHJ, where the (intermediate)

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  • 28 May 2021 Journal Article ACS Applied Nano Materials

    Effects of Microstructure and Neodymium Doping on Bi2Te3 Nanostructures: Implications for Thermoelectric Performance

    Gil Solomon, Erdong Song, Chhatrasal Gayner, Julio A Martinez, Yaron Amouyal
    Abstract

    We report on an intriguing aspect of the effects of microstructure and chemistry on thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of nanostructured Bi2Te3-based compounds that are associated with their topologically insulating (TI) nature. Nanograined n-type Bi2Te3 and Bi1.94Nd0.06Te3 samples were consolidated by uniaxial hot pressing of nanoparticles (NPs) produced by

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  • 26 May 2021 Journal Article Soft Matter

    Enhanced ordering in length-polydisperse carbon nanotube solutions at high concentrations as revealed by small angle X-ray scattering

    Vida Jamali, Francesca Mirri, Evan G Biggers, Robert A Pinnick, Lucy Liberman, Yachin Cohen, Yeshayahu Talmon, Fred C MacKintosh, Paul van der Schoot, Matteo Pasquali
    Abstract

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are stiff, all-carbon macromolecules with diameters as small as one nanometer and few microns long. Solutions of CNTs in chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) follow the phase behavior of rigid rod polymers interacting via a repulsive potential and display a liquid crystalline phase at sufficiently high concentration. Here, we show that small-angle X-ray

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  • 21 May 2021 Journal Article Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer

    Ultrasonic Temperature Compensating Method for Tracking Decomposition Front in Silica-Phenolic Thermal Protection Material

    Aleksander Zibitsker, Moshe Berreby, Dan Michaels, Ramin Shilav, Ilya Frisman
    Abstract

    This paper presents an ultrasonic method for tracking the decomposition front in ablating silica-phenolic thermal protection system material. The method exploits diffuse ultrasonic backscatter from the material microstructure to account for the temperature-dependent change of the speed of sound. The method is demonstrated in a series of ablation tests performed at a

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  • 5 May 2021 Journal Article Matter

    Small grains as recombination hot spots in perovskite solar cells

    Abstract

    Non-radiative recombination in the perovskite bulk and at its interfaces prohibits the photovoltaic performance from reaching the Shockley-Queisser limit. While interfacial recombination has been widely discussed and demonstrated, bulk recombination and especially the influence of grain boundaries remain under debate. Most studies explore the role of grain boundaries

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  • 3 May 2021 Journal Article AIAA Journal

    Rotor Performance Enhancement Using Pulsed Plasma Actuation

    Abstract

    Single and multirotor drones are increasingly used for commercial and humanitarian applications, including product delivery [1], disaster relief [2], wildlife tracking [3], agriculture [4], andlab-on-a-drone functions [5]. Their main advantages include vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) capability, hovering, and autonomous flight over difficult [6] and complex terrains

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  • 2 May 2021 Journal Article Electric Power Systems Research

    New type of bridge fault current limiter with reduced power losses for transient stability improvement of DFIG wind farm

    Dmitry Baimel, Nilanjan Roy Chowdhury, Juri Belikov, Yoash Levron
    Abstract

    The paper presents a new active diode bridge fault current limiter (FCL) topology, and compares it to the classic diode bridge, Series Dynamic Breaking Resistor (SDBR), and active diode bridge FCL circuits. The comparison is done using a benchmark system that includes a 9 MW wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), two 50 MW synchronous generators, and

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  • May 2021 Conference Paper CLEO: Applications and Technology 2021

    Design of Nighttime Power Generation System to Optimally Utilize Outer Space Darkness

    Lingling Fan, Wei Li, Weiliang Jin, Meir Orenstein, Shanhui Fan
    Abstract

    We present a systematic optimization of nighttime thermoelectric power generation system utilizing radiative cooling. We show that an electrical power density > 2 W/m2, two orders of magnitude higher than previous works, is achievable using existing technologies.

  • 28 Apr 2021 Preprint arXiv

    Evidence for ultra long range energy transfer in organic photovoltaic donor-acceptor three dimensional films

    Abstract

    We report an ultra long range energy transfer in a layered donor:spacer:acceptor structures, which consist of the typical organic photovoltaic material system of P3HT as the donor and PCBM as the acceptor. By varying the thicknesses of spacer and acceptor layers we show that the energy transfer is to the full volume of the acceptor and not just to its nearest interface

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