5 Jul 2021 Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters
Sub-Nanosecond Pulses Enable Partial Reset for Analog Phase Change Memory
Keren Stern, Nicolas Wainstein, Yair Keller, Christopher M Neumann, Eric Pop, Shahar Kvatinsky, Eilam Yalon
A key bottleneck in using phase change memory (PCM) for training artificial neural networks is the abrupt nature of the melt-quench process (amorphization), which does not allow gradual reset. Here we demonstrate analog reset (partial amorphization) in PCM by applying sub-nanosecond programming pulses. Intermediate-level reset states are enabled by reducing the pulseshow more
2 Jul 2021 Journal Article Nano Letters
Multiplexed PSF Engineering for Three-Dimensional Multicolor Particle Tracking
Three-dimensional spatiotemporal tracking of microscopic particles in multiple colors is a challenging optical imaging task. Existing approaches require a trade-off between photon efficiency, field of view, mechanical complexity, spectral specificity, and speed. Here, we introduce multiplexed point-spread-function engineering that achieves photon-efficient, 3D multicolorshow more
12 Jun 2021 Advanced Electronic Materials
Uncovering Phase Change Memory Energy Limits by Sub-Nanosecond Probing of Power Dissipation Dynamics
Keren Stern, Nicolas Wainstein, Yair Keller, Christopher M Neumann, Eric Pop, Shahar Kvatinsky, Eilam Yalon
Phase change memory (PCM) is one of the leading candidates for neuromorphic hardware and has recently matured as a storage class memory. Yet, energy and power consumption remain key challenges for this technology because part of the PCM device must be self-heated to its melting temperature during reset. Here, it is shown that this reset energy can be reduced by nearlyshow more
8 Jun 2021 Preprint arXiv
Superconducting microresonators for electron spin resonance, the good, the bad, and the future
The field of electron spin resonance is in constant need to improve its capabilities. Among other things, this means having better resonators which would provide improved spin sensitivity, as well as enable larger microwave magnetic field power conversion factors. Surface micro resonators, made of small metallic patches on a dielectric substrate, provide very goodshow more
24 May 2021 Journal Article Nature Communications
3D printable diffractive optical elements by liquid immersion
Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are used to shape the wavefront of incident light. This can be used to generate practically any pattern of interest, albeit with varying efficiency. A fundamental challenge associated with DOEs comes from the nanoscale-precision requirements for their fabrication. Here we demonstrate a method to controllably scale up the relevantshow more
24 May 2021 Journal Article Nanotechnology
PN junction and band to band tunneling in carbon nanotube transistors at room temperature
We demonstrate band to band tunneling (BTBT) in a carbon nanotube (CNT) field effect transistor. We employ local electrostatic doping assisted by charged traps within the oxide to produce an intramolecular PN junction along the CNT. These characteristics apply for both metallic (m-CNTs) and semiconducting (SC-CNTs) CNTs. For m-CNTs we present a hysteretic transfershow more
3 May 2021 Journal Article Nano Letters
Functional Meta Lenses for Compound Plasmonic Vortex Field Generation and Control
Eva Prinz, Grisha Spektor, Michael Hartelt, Anna-Katharina Mahro, Martin Aeschlimann, Meir Orenstein
Surface plasmon polaritons carrying orbital angular momentum are of great fundamental and applied interest. However, common approaches for their generation are restricted to having a weak dependence on the properties of the plasmon-generating illumination, providing a limited degree of control over the amount of delivered orbital angular momentum. Here we experimentallyshow more
5 Apr 2021 Journal Article Nature Photonics
Real-time sub-wavelength imaging of surface waves with nonlinear near-field optical microscopy
Imaging evanescent waves is of crucial importance for sub-wavelength-scale investigation of various phenomena. However, frequently used techniques for near-field imaging require either a strong perturbation of the field, long acquisition times or complex electron-based tools. Here, we introduce nonlinear near-field optical microscopy (NNOM), which is capable of real-timeshow more
22 Mar 2021 Journal Article Crystals
Simultaneous Multi-Bragg Peak Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging
Florian Lauraux, Stephane Labat, Sarah Yehya, Marie-Ingrid Richard, Steven J Leake, Tao Zhou, Jean-Sébastien Micha, Odile Robach, Oleg Kovalenko, Eugen Rabkin, Tobias U Schülli, Olivier P Thomas, Thomas W Cornelius
The simultaneous measurement of two Bragg reflections by Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction is demonstrated on a twinned Au crystal, which was prepared by the solid-state dewetting of a 30 nm thin gold film on a sapphire substrate. The crystal was oriented on a goniometer so that two lattice planes fulfill the Bragg condition at the same time. The Au 111 and Au 200 Braggshow more
14 Jan 2021 Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Indirectly Heated Switch as a Platform for Nanosecond Probing of Phase Transition Properties in Chalcogenides
Nicolas Wainstein, Guy Ankonina, Timm Swoboda, Miguel Munoz-Rojo, Shahar Kvatinsky, Eilam Yalon
Although phase-change materials (PCMs) have been studied for more than 50 years, temperature-dependent characterization of the phase transition dynamics remains challenging due to the lack of nanosecond-nanoscale thermometry. In this article, we utilize the four-terminal, indirectly heated phase-change switch (IPCS), which was originally designed for nonvolatile radioshow more
8 Dec 2020 Journal Article Nanoscale
Periodic concentration–polarization-based formation of a biomolecule preconcentrate for enhanced biosensing
Ionic concentration-polarization (CP)-based biomolecule preconcentration is an established method for enhancing the detection sensitivity of target biomolecules. However, the formed preconcentrated biomolecule plug rapidly sweeps over the surface-immobilized antibodies, resulting in a short-term overlap between the capture agent and the analyte, and subsequently suboptimalshow more
12 Nov 2020 Journal Article Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Enhanced cargo loading of electrically powered metallo-dielectric pollen bearing multiple dielectrophoretic traps
The use of active particles for cargo transport offers unique potential for applications ranging from targeted drug delivery to lab-on-a-particle systems. Previously, deployment of metallo-dielectric Janus spherical particles (JPs) as mobile microelectrodes for transport and dielectrophoretic manipulation of cargo has been shown to be singularly controlled via an appliedshow more
21 Oct 2020 Journal Article Nano Select
In-situ force measurement during nano-indentation combined with Laue microdiffraction
Florian Lauraux, Sarah Yehya, Stephane Labat, Jean-Sébastien Micha, Odile Robach, Oleg Kovalenko, Eugen Rabkin, Olivier P Thomas, Thomas W Cornelius
For the characterization of the mechanical properties of materials the precise measurements of stress-strain curves is indispensable. In situ nano-mechanical testing setups, however, may lack the precision either in terms of strain or stress determination. Recently, the custom-built scanning force microscope SFINX was developed which is compatible with third-generationshow more
18 Sep 2020 Journal Article Sustainable Energy and Fuels
15% enhancement of the photocurrent at the maximum power point of a thin film solar cell
Recent efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells has been achieved through material and chemical engineering of the chemistry and morphology of the donor–acceptor junction. Inducing band bending at the junction through ground state charge transfer between the donor and acceptor is an important route but realising it through chemical design is challenging. Here weshow more
17 Sep 2020 Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Compact Modeling and Electrothermal Measurements of Indirectly Heated Phase-Change RF Switches
Four-terminal, inline, indirectly heated phase-change switches (IPCS) have emerged as great contenders for reconfigurable radio frequency (RF) integrated circuits, providing state-of-the-art cutoff frequency thanks to their built-in dc-RF decoupling. However, the switching of IPCS devices is determined by their temperature which is challenging to predict. In this articleshow more
24 Aug 2020 Journal Article Nature Nanotechnology
Photonic Rashba effect from quantum emitters mediated by a Berry-phase defective photonic crystal
Heterostructures combining a thin layer of quantum emitters and planar nanostructures enable custom-tailored photoluminescence in an integrated fashion. Here, we demonstrate a photonic Rashba effect from valley excitons in a WSe2 monolayer, which is incorporated into a photonic crystal slab with geometric phase defects, that is, into a Berry-phase defective photonicshow more
21 Aug 2020 Journal Article Organic and Hybrid Field-Effect Transistors XIX
Contact engineering in vertical hybrid field effect transistor
Here we report a Vertical Hybrid Field Effect Transistor (VHFET) that shows an improved saturated output characteristics. Up till today the injection limited regime in vertical transistor was realized using an injection barrier as well as a buried semiconductor (SC) under the source contact. Using previous reported simulations and a new fabrication technique we successfullyshow more
13 Aug 2020 Journal Article Journal of Magnetic Resonance Open
Electron spin resonance microfluidics with subnanoliter liquid samples
Microfluidics is a well-established technique to synthesize, process, and analyze small amounts of materials for chemical, biological, medical, and environmental applications. Typically, it involves the use of reagents with a volume smaller than ~ 1 micro-l—ideally even nano- or picoliters. When the sample of interest contains paramagnetic species, it can in principleshow more
10 Aug 2020 Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics
Electrical and structural properties of conductive nitride films grown by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition with significant ion bombardment effect
Conductive metal nitrides are widely used in the microelectronics industry as interconnects, thin film resistors, electrodes, and diffusion barriers. These films are commonly prepared by sputtering and chemical vapor deposition, which are suitable for planar geometries. However, conformal deposition onto 3D and complex structures requires the use of atomic layer depositionshow more
27 Jul 2020 Journal Article Applied Physics Letters
Zero temperature coefficient of resistance in back-end-of-the-line compatible titanium aluminum nitride films by atomic layer deposition
Thin film resistors with near-zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) are key passive elements in analog integrated circuits (ICs). State-of-the-art near-zero TCR technology is based on sputtered compounds of Si, Cr, B, and C, which require annealing at temperatures higher than 500 °C, making it incompatible with back-end-of-the-line (BEOL) processes. We reportshow more
24 Jul 2020 Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics
Band structure and electronic transport across Ta2O5/Nb:SrTiO3 interfaces
Resistive switching devices promise significant progress in memory and logic technologies. One of the hurdles toward their practical realization is the high forming voltages required for their initial activation, which may be incompatible with standard microelectronic architectures. This work studies the conduction mechanisms of Ta2O5/Nb:SrTiO3show more
17 Jul 2020 Journal Article ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Improved Current Density and Contact Resistance in Bilayer MoSe2 Field Effect Transistors by AlOx Capping
Divya Somvanshi, Emanuel Ber, Connor S Bailey, Eric Pop, Eilam Yalon
Atomically thin semiconductors are of interest for future electronics applications, and much attention has been given to monolayer (1L) sulfides, such as MoS2, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). However, reports on the electrical properties of CVD-grown selenides, and MoSe2 in particular, are scarce. Here, we compare the electrical propertiesshow more
15 Jun 2020 Journal Article Nature Methods
DeepSTORM3D: dense 3D localization microscopy and PSF design by deep learning
An outstanding challenge in single-molecule localization microscopy is the accurate and precise localization of individual point emitters in three dimensions in densely labeled samples. One established approach for three-dimensional single-molecule localization is point-spread-function (PSF) engineering, in which the PSF is engineered to vary distinctively with emittershow more
1 Jun 2020 Journal Article Applied Physics Letters
Oxide 2D electron gases as a reservoir of defects for resistive switching
A non-volatile resistive switching device is demonstrated, utilizing a 2D electron gas (2DEG) between a SrTiO3 substrate and an amorphous Al2O3 layer. A large resistance window is observed, and its origin is discussed. We pinpoint the role of the oxide interface in enabling the resistive switching behavior. The switching mechanism isshow more
15 May 2020 Journal Article Physical Review Fluids
Electro-osmotic flow enhancement over superhydrophobic surfaces
Sebastian Dehe, Baruch Rofman, Moran Bercovici, Steffen Hardt
Electro-osmotic flow is a well-established and efficient method for driving microchannel flows that relies on the interaction of an externally applied electric field with charge arising at the interface between the liquid and the channel walls. However, its relatively low velocities together with its dependence on the pH of the liquid severely limit itsshow more
5 May 2020 Journal Article Scientific Reports
Hybrid image sensor of small molecule organic photodiode on CMOS - Integration and characterization
Himanshu Shekhar, Amos Fenigstein, Tomer Leitner, Becky Lavi, Dmitry Veinger, Nir Tessler
Organic photodiodes (OPDs) for its interesting optoelectronic properties has the potential to be utilized with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuit for imaging, automotive, and security based applications. To achieve such a hybrid device as an image sensor, it is imperative that the quality of the OPD remains high on the CMOS substrate and that it hasshow more
4 May 2020 Journal Article Small
Active Particle Based Selective Transport and Release of Cell Organelles and Mechanical Probing of a Single Nucleus
Self-propelling micromotors are emerging as a promising microscale tool for single-cell analysis. The authors have recently shown that the field gradients necessary to manipulate matter via dielectrophoresis can be induced at the surface of a polarizable active ("self-propelling") metallo-dielectric Janus particle (JP) under an externally applied electric field, actingshow more
1 May 2020 Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics
Impact of bilayered oxide stacks on the breakdown transients of metal–oxide–semiconductor devices: An experimental study
Sebastian M Pazos, S Boyeras Baldomá, Fernando L Aguirre, Igor Krylov, Moshe Eizenberg, Felix Palumbo
The role of the bilayered structure of the gate oxide on the dynamics of progressive breakdown is systematically studied on Au / Cr / HfO2 / Al2O3 / InGaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor stacks. Samples with bilayered oxides of 100 A total thickness were fabricated using different Al2O3 interfacial layer thicknesses toshow more
1 May 2020 Journal Article Nano Letters
Novel Ultra Localized and Dense Nitrogen Delta-Doping in Diamond for Advanced Quantum Sensing
Tzach Jaffe, Mohammed Attrash, Mohan Kumar Kuntumalla, Roza Akhvlediani, Sh Michaelson, Lior Gal, Nina Felgen, Miriam Fischer, Johann Peter Reithmaier, Cyril Popov, Alon Hoffman, Meir Orenstein
We introduce and demonstrate a new approach for nitrogen-vacancy (NV) patterning in diamond, achieving a deterministic, nanometer-thin, and dense delta-doped layer of negatively charged NV centers in diamond. We employed a pure nitridation stage using microwave plasma and a subsequent in situ diamond overgrowth. We present the highest reported nitrogen concentration inshow more
27 Apr 2020 Journal Article Nature Nanotechnology
Probing nanoscale fluctuation of ferromagnetic meta-atoms with a stochastic photonic spin Hall effect
The photonic spin Hall effect, a deep subdiffraction-limited shift between the opposite spin components of light, emerges when light undergoes an evolution of polarization or trajectory that induces the geometric phase. Here, we study a stochastic photonic spin Hall effect arising from space-variant Berry-Zak phases, which are generated by disordered magneto-opticalshow more
26 Apr 2020 Journal Article Langmuir
Intermediate States of Wetting on Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces
Baruch Rofman, Sebastian Dehe, Valeri Frumkin, Steffen Hardt, Moran Bercovici
Wetting transition on superhydrophobic surfaces is commonly described as an abrupt jump between two stable states—either from Cassie to Wenzel for nonhierarchical surfaces or from Cassie to nano-Cassie on hierarchical surfaces. We here experimentally study the electrowetting of hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces composed of multiple length scales by imaging theshow more
Apr 2020 Journal Article ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Structure-Property Relation in Organic-Metal Oxide Hybrid Phototransistors
We report an optoelectronic device consisting of a solution-processed indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistor and vacuum-deposited small organic molecules. Depending on the configurations of the organic materials, either bulk heterojunction or planar heterojunction (PHJ), the device assumes the functionality of either a photosensor or a photoinduced memoryshow more
25 Mar 2020 Journal Article Physical Review X
Nonmodal Plasmonics: Controlling the Forced Optical Response of Nanostructures
The operation of numerous physical systems and devices relies on concentrating their state space around a few carefully engineered eigenstates governing the dynamics. In photonics, these discrete degrees of freedom are typically the resonant modes of a structure. However, whenever a light source drives the structure, a continuum of additional nonmodal states generatesshow more
16 Mar 2020 Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology
Role of temperature on structure and electrical properties of titanium nitride films grown by low pressure plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition
Film crystallinity is one of the key factors determining the resistivity of thin conductive nitride films. In the process of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), the film crystallinity can be significantly improved by the ion bombardment effect taking place at a low pressure. At a low plasma pressure, ion bombardment supplies additional energy for adatomshow more
6 Mar 2020 Journal Article ACS Sensors
Micromotor-Based Biosensing Using Directed Transport of Functionalized Beads
Previous micromotor-based biosensing studies used to functionalize the surface of the micromotor with specific molecular probes for binding of target analyte, thus limiting the use of the micromotor for the specific target. In contrast, here, we introduce a novel approach of using a nonfunctionalized micromotor as a generic cargo carrier being able to perform label-freeshow more
1 Feb 2020 Journal Article Journal of Applied Crystallography
Multi-wavelength Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of Au particles
Florian Lauraux, Thomas W Cornelius, Stephane Labat, Marie-Ingrid Richard, Steven J Leake, Tao Zhou, Oleg Kovalenko, Eugen Rabkin, Tobias U Schülli, Olivier P Thomas
Multi-wavelength (mw) Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (BCDI) is demonstrated on a single Au particle. The multi-wavelength Bragg diffraction patterns are inverted using conventional phase-retrieval algorithms where the dilation of the effective pixel size of a pixelated 2D detector caused by the variation of the X-ray beam energy is mitigated by interpolatingshow more
29 Jan 2020 Journal Article Science Advances
Active particles as mobile microelectrodes for selective bacteria electroporation and transport
Self-propelling micromotors are emerging as a promising micro- and nanoscale tool for single-cell analysis. We have recently shown that the field gradients necessary to manipulate matter via dielectrophoresis can be induced at the surface of a polarizable active ("self-propelling") metallodielectric Janus particle (JP) under an externally applied electric field, actingshow more
1 Jan 2020 Journal Article Advanced Electronic Materials
Scalable Synthesis of the Transparent Conductive Oxide SrVO3
Lishai Shoham, Maria Baskin, Myung-Geun Han, Yimei Zhu, Lior Kornblum
The correlated metal SrVO3 is an attractive earth‐abundant transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a critical component of many optoelectronic and renewable energy devices. A key challenge is to synthesize films with low resistivity, due to the prevalence of defects that cause electron scattering. In addition to the material's promise as a TCO, its interestingshow more